I love the name of this farm too.

Karen and Roy have never wavered from their dedication to farming organically and promoting organic farming within Dominica and the Caribbean.

They have an innovative way of marketing and selling their produce. They send out a weekly email describing what they have; you have time to peruse what’s available that week in the peace and quiet of your home/office; then you place your order by email at least 24 hours in advance. Then you pick it up at the Saturday market in Roseau. Their newsletters are informative and enjoyable to read.

You can just visit their booth at the Farmer’s Market Saturday morning if you wish but a few of their items are available only by email so always check to see if it is a request or special order item so you don’t get disappointed.

Roots Farm are there from about 6:30 AM to just after Noon.

Their table is right across from KFC on Hanover Street.

Note: there is a service charge of $5 for orders under $75.

The following is an example of their email newsletter.

THIS WEEK’S PRODUCE:

FRUITS & FRUIT TREES: Grapefruit, Red or White: 5/$2. For juice and fresh eating although still a little tart. Grapefruit helps control weight with flavonoids that block the uptake of fatty acids into cells, protects heart health with generous amounts of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and pectin, and helps protect against cancer. Pink and red varieties contain additional valuable anti-oxidants and red contains lycopene, a phytochemical that helps prevent the LDL cholesterol damage. Despite its own acidity, grapefruit has a beneficial alkalizing effect on the body. Cautions: grapefruit may halt the metabolism of some drugs, while excessive consumption can leach calcium from the body system, causing decay of the bones and teeth.

Strawberry Plants: in Flats: $10 each or 2 in same pot for $15. PLEASE REQUEST. These are a medium size real Northern type strawberry with very good real strawberry flavor. The type has been demonstrated to thrive and produce in higher elevations (Cochrane and Bellevue Chopin) in Dominica, but not tested, to my knowledge, along coast although the Taiwanese had a similar (same?) variety that did well in the Stock Farm area. Plants are vigorous producer of runners (more plants for you).

Tanmawen dezenn Seedlings: aka Tamawe de zen/Spanish Tamarind/Chinee tambran: (Vangueria madagascariensis): $20. PLEASE REQUEST. Well rooted, 2-2.5′ seedlings. Sweet, almost date like fruit, usually eaten dry in Dominica, although used fresh elsewhere. Grows as a profusely branched shrub or small tree, 2-15 m tall. Does best in drier parts of island. Species getting rare; deserves to survive: have room for a tree? ______________________________________________________________________

ROOTS

Turmeric aka “Saffwan”: 8 oz/$2.50. This celebrated health-boosting spice is not usually found organically grown and is easy to store for months. Mostly used dried, as in curry powder, fresh root tastes even better than dry grated into rice, beans, soups, etc. for color and warm, peppery flavor. Good grated into pesto or raw foods too. A true superfood, TCM and Ayurvedic Medicinal star known for strengthening and improving digestion, elimination and metabolism; supporting healthy liver function and detoxification; purifying blood; acting as an anti-inflammatory; containing curcuminoids that fight cancer, arthritis, and Alzheimer’s; and so much more. Note: surfaces (and hands) coming in contact with cut turmeric will get orange stains which eventually wear off. Also note that consuming with black pepper vastly increases the availability of turmeric’s healthful properties.

Yams, White & Lady’s: $2.50/lb Lady’s; $2/lb White. Limited supply. Yams provide some protein and a lot of starch, in the form of complex carbohydrates and soluble dietary fiber (which together are recommended as low glycemic index healthy food which also reduces constipation, decreases bad or “LDL” cholesterol levels, and helps prevent colon cancer). Yams also provide vitamin c and minerals.

VEGETABLES

Bean, Lima — fresh: $5/lb; $2.75/.5 lb. in shell (must be shelled before cooking); 7.5 oz/$6 shelled. Also called Butter Beans, fresh limas may just be the next best thing to edamame or fresh green peas. They also make an excellent hummus, replacing chickpeas. Cook lightly. Limas are a very good source of cholesterol-lowering, blood-sugar modulating fiber, making them an especially good choice for individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia. When combined with whole grains such as rice, lima beans provide virtually fat-free high quality protein. They are an excellent source of molybdenum and iron and can make a major contribution to heart and cardiovascular health due to their folate and magnesium content. Their manganese helps energy production and acts as an antioxidant to disable free radicals.

Bean, Lima — Dry: $9/lb. shelled. Limited supply Dry limas require long cooking like other dry beans, but similarly reward with flavor and nutrition. Limas are a very good source of cholesterol-lowering, blood-sugar modulating fiber, making them an especially good choice for individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia. When combined with whole grains such as rice, lima beans provide virtually fat-free high quality protein. They are an excellent source of molybdenum and iron and can make a major contribution to heart and cardiovascular health due to their folate and magnesium content. Their manganese helps energy production and acts as an antioxidant to disable free radicals.

Christophene/Chayote: 3/$2. Mild flavored and low calorie, christophene is most often served cooked but can also be enjoyed raw in salads. Skin and seed are also edible (as are leaves and roots). It is rich in amino acids, vitamins (especially Vitamin C and folate), antioxidants, minerals and fiber.

Edible “Hibiscus” (Hibiscus manihot, Bele or Abelmoschus manihot) – LEAVES: 10 oz/$2.50. Nice tasting, large highly nutritious leaves are mucilaginous, so are a good quick-cooking thickener for soups, but can also be steamed, stir-fried, or used as other greens. Bele makes the best ever “kale chips” (Wash & dry the leaves & spray or toss lightly with cooking oil, then sprinkle with salt & your choice of spices/herbs. Spread single layer onto baking pan and bake at 275-300 F about 10-15 minutes until crisp. Enjoy right away or store in air tight container to preserve crispness.) Also makes a great wrap, either raw or cooked, for your delectable fillings (see recipe at: http://www.ecobotanica.com.au/Stuffed-Vine-Leaves-Using-Edible-Hibiscus-Leaves-bgp1032.html), Among the most nutritious of greens, Bele is very high in vitamins A and C, in iron and protein. Used in numerous Asian healing systems to relieve inflammation, urinary infection, chronic bronchitis, pain and irritation. Its stems are antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral. The bark is said to be emmenagogue, increasing menstruation and should be avoided by pregnant women. To be on safe side, perhaps leaves should be avoided as well by pregnant women. A paste of the bark is used to treat wounds and cuts; the root juice is warmed and applied to sprains; the juice of the flowers is used to treat chronic bronchitis and toothache; and the plant is thought to increase bone density.

Edible “Hibiscus” (aka Hibiscus manihot, Bele, Abelmoschus manihot) – STEMS: $1, 2 oz sample pack. PLEASE REQUEST. Lovely light-sweet flavor like nothing else I know, the stems are wonderful by themselves as a crunchy (but also slightly gooey) healthy snack or chopped into salads, soups, stir-fries; juiced into smoothies and green drinks; as crudités, etc. Lots of potential for creative use to capitalize on unique flavor. Older stems may need the outer layer peeled. Stems are antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral. Please read cautions above for leaves.

Mustard Leaves: 50 cents/oz. Limited supply. Another of the cruciferous superstars (like kale & broccoli) whether used young and relatively mild or mature and strong flavored. Use fresh for pepping up your salad, sandwiches, omelets, or cooking. Mustard’s bite mellows somewhat when cooked. Mustard provides plentiful vitamins, minerals, fiber, detox & cardiovascular support, anti-oxidant & anti-inflammatory benefits. Folks with kidney and/or gallbladder problems should probably avoid due to oxalate content. Lots of good info at: www.whfoods.com

Pumpkin: $1.25/lb whole; VERY LARGE pumpkins. $2.00/lb. slices. Fully ripe & dry. Typical Dominican sweet delicious pumpkin delivers the vitamin benefits of both a fruit and a vegetable. Like other orange vegetables, pumpkin has high vitamin A content. It also has significant amounts of vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, B-6 and folate and provides iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

Sweet Potato Greens: 10 oz/$2.50. Say what? Sweet potato leaves are delicious and nutritious and widely used in Africa and Asia. Steam, saute, add to soups and stews or cook like any quick-cooking green. According to FAO leaflet No. 13 – 1990, they are a good source of vitamins A, C, and B2 (riboflavin), and an excellent source of lutein. According to research from the University of Arkansas, sweet potato leaves are high in disease-fighting antioxidants, containing 15 different compounds helpful for preventing heart disease, diabetes, infection and some types of cancer.

HERBS

Basil: $2.50/Regular Mix; $3/any single variety or special mix. Protects cell structures as well as chromosomes from radiation and oxygen-based damage and provides protection against unwanted bacterial growth, including the ability to inhibit several species of pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotic drugs. In addition, basil qualifies as an “anti-inflammatory” food that can provide important healing benefits along with symptomatic relief for individuals with inflammatory health problems like rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel conditions. Basil is a good source of nutrients essential for cardiovascular health, including Vitamin A and magnesium, as well as iron, calcium, potassium and vitamin C. As a member of the Mint family, basil is used for its digestive and anti-gas properties. Herbalists also recommend it for stomach cramps, vomiting, constipation, headaches, and anxiety. We have the following types available. Please let us know if you want us to bring a specific type for you.

Basil, Holy Green aka Tulsi: $3. Stars in Ayurvedic healing as: nerve tonic, stomach, heart and kidney strengthener, dengue preventive, and blood purifier as well as for stress, memory, fever, colds and flu, coughs, skin disorders, headaches, eye problems, hypertension, and much more. Lovely in a bouquet or for tea or cooking, but not really a culinary substitute for Italian/pesto basils. Recent fame as a Swine Flu deterrent/ameliorative. See: www.holy-basil.com

Basil, Holy Red: $3. PLEASE REQUEST. Like Holy Green Basil, but stronger tasting, Holy Red is a super herb medicinally: supports cortisol, blood sugar, protects cells from radiation damage, and so much more. Also lovely in a bouquet or for tea or cooking, but not really a substitute for Italian/pesto basils.

BASIL MIXES:

Basil Regular/Tea Mix: may include: Lemon, Thai, Malaysian, Holy Red, Holy Green (Tulsi), East Indian, Cinnamon/Mexican, Italian, Anise, various showy spicy purple basils, local (Spicy Globe) and more. May contain dark colors or stronger flavors than the Pesto or Southeast Asian mixes. Good for teas, but also for cooking or salad herbs. Basil protects cell structures as well as chromosomes from radiation and oxygen-based damage and against unwanted bacterial growth. In addition, it qualifies as an “anti-inflammatory” food that can provide important healing benefits along with symptomatic relief for individuals with inflammatory health problems like rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel conditions. Basil is a good source of nutrients essential for cardiovascular health, including Vitamin A and magnesium, as well as iron, calcium, potassium and vitamin C..

Basil, Pesto Mix: $3. Heavy on Italian, Thai, Malaysian, Lemon, Blue Spice & other varieties that make a great pesto and none of the stronger tasting (e.g., East Indian, Anise, Cinnamon) or red varieties. Do try substituting cooked breadnuts for pine nuts/almonds and coconut oil for olive oil for a wholly local version of pesto that equals or betters the traditional Italian. Purslane or papalo can be added to increase the nutritional value and add further depth to the taste. Basil,

SouthEast Asian Mix: $3. PLEASE REQUEST. Thai and Malaysian varieties. In SE Asian cooking, these are usually added at the very end of cooking to retain bright green color. Can also be used for pesto.

Bay Leaves: Fresh. PLEASE REQUEST. In addition to its culinary uses (soups, stews, sauces, etc.), Sweet bay is used medicinally as a tea to soothe the stomach and relieve flatulence and in ointments to relieve the aches and pains associated with rheumatism, and for sprains, bruises, and skin rashes. Do not use if pregnant or breast-feeding.or are scheduled for surgery in the next two weeks as it might cause excessive sedation combined with medications. Folk use: Cancer, dandruff, and relieving gas.

Chinese Garlic Chive aka Chinese Leek: Wonderful in and on most everything, raw or cooked (add at end of cooking for best flavor). Flavor like a mild garlic-onion cross. Low fat, high in fiber, Vitamin C and carotene, plus moderate calcium, Vitamins B1 and B2. In Chinese medicine, garlic chives are considered to be a yin or warming food that like other members of the garlic and onion family, contain a sulphur-rich mustard oil that aids digestion and helps promote the flow of blood.

Chive, Fine: PLEASE REQUEST. Limited supply. Used for delicate “onion” flavor, raw or cooked, and as a garnish. Chives aid digestion and stimulate appetite, are good for the respiratory system, help reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and have anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties.

Culantro/Chadron Benee/Shado beni/Recao: By any name, this herb tastes like cilantro and is used similarly, as well as starring in Puerto Rican specialties like sofrito and salsas. Nutritionally, it offers calcium, iron, carotene, and riboflavin. Its medicinal value includes as a tea for pneumonia, flu, diabetes, constipation, depression, fevers, and blood purification. It is also used in chutneys as an appetite stimulant and is reported to have anti-convulsant properties and to help with vomiting and diarrhea. In addition to packages of leaves, we can supply the flower/seed scapes, the plant part most commonly used locally in tea, rum or food.

Dill: Limited supply. PLEASE REQUEST. Most commonly used in pickles, salads and fish dishes, dill has chemoprotective and bacteriostatic properties and is a very good source of calcium. Dill is also a good source of dietary fiber and the minerals manganese, iron and magnesium.

Lemon Balm: PLEASE REQUEST. Mint family herb useful in salad or for fish, also makes a lovely, almost flowery) tasting tea with antibacterial and antiviral properties (effective against herpes simplex) also useful as a mild sedative or calming agent. Try it in your own unique version of Mojito. Lemon balm should be avoided by those on thyroid medication as the herb may inhibit absorption.

Lemon Grass PLEASE REQUEST. With the bulb for Thai and other SE Asian (and other) recipes; leaves for tea. Grating the bulb or fine slicing it into whatever sauce, curry, stir-fry, etc. you are making gives a lovely flavor accent and benefits of the fiber and other nutrients, but the stalk and leaves could also be pounded or bruised and added to your pot for flavor and removed before serving. Lemongrass, ginger and garlic are wonderful as flavoring combo. for a winged bean stir-fry. See recipes at: recipes.epicurean.com. Lemongrass has many antioxidant, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antifungal agents. It is used as a sedative/calming agent, to detoxify digestive organs, to stimulate digestion and blood circulation, and for hypertension.

Mints Mix Peppermint, Spearmint and a local (lovely, but unknown variety) mint. Culinary use in salads, mint jelly, tea, mojitos, more. Relieves many kinds of stomach distress, contains phytonutrients shown to stop growth of tumors, inhibits various bacteria and fungal growth, has anti-oxidant properties, helps airways stay free in asthma and colds, and provides nutrients like manganese, vitamin C and vitamin A, dietary fiber, folate, iron, magnesium, and calcium, vitamin B2, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium and copper. And we haven’t even mentioned mojitos yet.

Moringa Leaves, fresh (Dry also available): 2 oz/$3. Currently widely hyped but with good reason as Moringa is a powerful nutrient rich food, potent detoxifier, and therapeutic support for numerous health challenges and conditions. Loaded with vitamins and minerals, and protein with all 8 essential amino acids, plus others, and 46 anti-oxidants, it also tastes good (slightly spicy) fresh in salads, as garnish, in green drinks or lightly cooked addition to most anything. Moringa functions as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiparasitic. It balances sugar and cholesterol levels, stimulates the immune system and metabolism, supports digestion and protects liver and kidneys. Caution: may not be appropriate for those taking blood-thinning medications and the seeds, powerful detoxicants, may cause problems with intestinal walls, kidney & liver if taken daily or in excessive amounts. Leaves can be utilized daily. See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3retnQVSOs&feature=share Click HERE for even more about Moringa.

Parsley, Italian Flat: A little milder and sweeter than curly parsley and used the same. Has similar anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties, benefits heart health and rheumatoid arthritis, and provides generous amounts of Vitamins K, C, A, and Folate, plus iron. Makes a great tabouleh.

Parsley, Japanese, aka Mitsuba: PLEASE REQUEST. Unique flavor, said to taste like angelica, celery, and parsley. All parts are edible, fresh or cooked in soups, salads, tempura batter, rice, as seasoning, etc. Cook lightly only as it can get bitter and lose taste if cooked for more than a few minutes. Offers Vitamins A, B’s, C, E and K, as well as minerals. Medicinally used for women’s complaints and in the treatment of hemorrhages, colds, and fevers.

Sage: Limited supply. PLEASE REQUEST. Culinary. American traditional favorite for poultry, stuffings. sausages, ground meats, fish, salads, soups, and stews. Also serves as an antispasmodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, expectorant, nervine, and tonic. Small bunches.

Shimonita Scallions: 60 cents/oz, about $3-4/stem, depending on size. PLEASE REQUEST. Large Sweet Scallion variety from Japan: Very special. No waste: the green tops are delicious cooked in most everything. You’d be hard pressed to tell this from leeks by flavor, although texturally leeks are creamier after cooking. Like other scallions or “sive,” Shimonita has vitamin and mineral benefits (vitamin K, essential to blood clotting and strong bones; vitamin A, supporting eye health and cellular function; vitamin C with its antioxidant and many other virtues; folate, for energy production and birth defect prevention; Calcium, strengthening bones and teeth; Magnesium, which helps with muscle contraction, energy production and enzyme and protein activity; Potassium for regulating electrical activity, including heart beat, mineral and fluid balance; and manganese, a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant. TCM uses scallions for dispersing chill and colds, relieving congestion, fighting fungal and bacterial infections, and relaxing muscle tension.

Soursop Leaves: PLEASE REQUEST. Fresh or dry. Lovely tasting tea is used for sleep inducing qualities and cancer prevention and cure. Scientific research conducted by The U.S. National Cancer Institute concluded that Soursop leaves can effectively attack and destroy cancer cells. In addition to this, folk uses include for: inflammation, rheumatism, diabetes, nerves, skin conditions (boils, eczema, etc.), liver, bladder & uric acid, and many more uses. Not for use by folks with low blood pressure or taking hypertensive drugs without proper monitoring of blood pressure.

Thyme, Broad Leaf aka Grosdite: aka Cuban oregano, Spanish Thyme. PLEASE REQUEST. Used for chicken, fish, meat, beans, pelau, risotto, as part of Jamaican “jerk” seasoning, and as part of green seasoning. Can be used in same ways as common thyme, but has stronger flavor, and is often used chopped fresh. Grosdite has antibacterial and fungicidal properties and is used for stomach complaints, fevers, colds, coughs, sore throats, infections, rheumatism and flatulence.

CHOCOLATE! CHOCOLATE BARS: $15/4oz or 110 gm bar. A not overly sweet treat made by Alan Napier at Pointe Baptiste estate in Calibishie. Bars may be ordered from the list below or you can take your chances at the table. Nearly all the cocoa used is grown organically either on the estate or bought from people who grow their cocoa organically. Currently we have the following varieties in stock: Coffee chocolate with organic Robusta coffee; 60% cocoa Dark chocolate with 80% cocoa Ginger chocolate with 60% cocoa Hot Pepper chocolate with 60% cocoa Milk chocolate with 50% cocoa — SOLD OUT Mint chocolate with 60% cocoa Spice chocolate with nutmeg, cinnamon and clove; 60% cocoa Tangerine chocolate with 60% cocoa

COCOA POWDER: SOLD OUT temporarily $5/100 gm packet. PLEASE REQUEST. This is 100% cocoa powder, derived after Alan presses the cocoa to extract the cocoa butter (which he then mixes with more cocoa to make chocolate. The cocoa powder is used for making cakes, cocoa tea, etc. In Europe it is sold in shops as Vanhouten cocoa powder. This is really beautiful delicious cocoa. For a special treat try these divine Chocolate Energy Balls: http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-10534/raw-recipe-chocolate-energy-balls.html _________________________________________________________________________________

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS: $15/2 Kg Bag. PLEASE REQUEST. Imported from Belgium by W.M. Hollerman. (Holldom2@gmail.com, 316-2026) from whom larger size bags are also available. This is what we use, along with our own compost and pen manure (when we can get it uncontaminated with antibiotics or arsenic or other of the problematic additives to commercial feed passed through to the manure). We are very impressed with the results we get from this line of fertilizers. Three formulas are available:

VIVISOL: SOIL CONDITIONER/MICROBIAL STIMULATOR: Use in each planting hole, when planting new fields and also after sowing/incorporating young plants in the soil. Provides organic matter, improves physical and biological soil fertility, increases water retention capacity, improves soil structure. The stimulation of soil life will result in higher yields, especially for tropical fruit trees. Use 5-15 kg/100m2 or about one 8 oz cup per square meter or per 3.2×3.2 foot (10.7 square feet)

VIVIKALI — FRUITS, ROOTS, TUBERS, ORNAMENTALS: Slow, continuous release provides a lot of potassium and is best used 1.5 months before fruit formation to give a lot of energy to form big thick juicy fruits or root and tuber crops or for ornamentals not needing nitrogen. Apply 5-10 kg/100 m2 or about 4 oz. per square meter or per 3.2×3.2 foot (10.7 square feet)

PLANTORGANO — BASIC FERTILIZER, VEGETABLES: Good as an initial first fertilization or together with Vivisol in the planting hole or after sowing/planting. Apply 10-15 kg/100 m² or about one 8 oz cup per square meter or per 3.2×3.2 foot (10.7 square feet) (depending on the crop)

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CTA is a joint ACP-EU institution active in agricultural and rural development in ACP countries. This information is extremely interesting to a Dominican Agriculturalist.

Its mission is to advance food and nutritional security, increase prosperity and encourage sound natural resource management. It does this by providing access to information and knowledge, facilitating policy dialogue and strengthening the capacity of agricultural and rural development institutions and communities in ACP countries.

CTA publishes and co-publishes printed, electronic and/or multimedia information products on various aspects of agriculture and rural development (including CTA bi-monthly magazine Spore/Esporo).

I discovered them years ago when reading The Spore at the Roseau Library

Check out their catalogue of publications.

If a company is going to make a difference in today’s world, it’s going to have to think differently.

An amazing cooperative

Our story starts back in January of 1988—a time when family farms were on the brink of extinction. We were a handful of farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin’s coulee region and we shared a love of the land. We also shared the belief that a new, sustainable approach to agriculture could help family farms and rural communities survive.

http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/overview/our-history/

Natural salt is unrefined; often gray in colour and the granules are moist and stick together somewhat. Natural salt contains sodium and minerals in balance; often the sodium content is less than 50%. Natural salt is good for us to eat in small quantities.

On the other hand refined salt is generally 95 to 99% sodium – the minerals are stripped away through a heating process that changes the molecular structure.

Income potential doubles for the product as nigari and sodium can then be sold instead of just one item.

Salt has long been used for its healing properties

There has been a plethera of new salt companies open in the Caribbean over the last 20 years. Most of these companies offer a gourmet natural sea salt; if only someone in Dominica could do that!

Companies producing salt in the Caribbean; each company lists their process and they are all very different from high tech to recycled glass panes from hurricane damage.

Cayman Islands

Haiti

Bonaire

When I travelled through the Caribbean in 1980/81 studying the use of herbs in daily life, vegetarian cooking and sustainable living I talked to elderly people who still remembered gathering their own salt by the sea.

We are putting chemicals originally developed as neuro toxins in the second world war on our food and therefore in our food, our rivers, our soil and our oceans. This affects those who apply the chemicals, and those who consume them as well as those who are nearby when the application is happening or afterwards.

The following information is a copy and paste from Medscape, I have highlighted a few sentences

Authors:

Frances M Dyro, MD  Associate Professor of Neurology, New York Medical College; Neuromuscular Section, Department of Neurology, Westchester Medical Center

Organophosphates (OPs) are chemical substances originally produced by the reaction of alcohols and phosphoric acid. In the 1930s, organophosphates were used as insecticides, but the German military developed these substances as neurotoxins in World War II. They function as cholinesterase inhibitors, thereby affecting neuromuscular transmission.

Organophosphate insecticides, such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, disulfoton, azinphos-methyl, and fonofos, have been used widely in agriculture and in household applications as pesticides. Over 25,000 brands of pesticides are available in the United States, and their use is monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Diazinon was sold in the United States for 48 years with 14.7 million pounds sold annually. It was the most widely used ingredient in lawn and garden sprays in the United States. Diazinon was found under the brand names Real Kill, Ortho, and Spectracide. In the past decade, the EPA reached an agreement with the pesticide industry to end the production of diazinon by March 2001 for indoor use and June 2003 for lawn and garden use. Chlorpyrifos (Dursban) was involved in a negotiated phaseout in June 2000. These phaseouts resulted from recognition of the special risk that these substances posed for children. Four percent of patients presenting to poison control centers report pesticide exposure. Of those patients, 34% are children younger than 6 years.

Toxic nerve agents used by the military are often of the organophosphate group; an example is sarin, the nerve gas used in a terrorist action in Tokyo in 1995. In anticipation of military use of OP neurotoxins during the Gulf War, the US military was given prophylactic agents which some believe caused some of the symptoms of Gulf War syndrome.

With the emergence of the West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, programs of spraying have been implemented in large urban areas, in particular New York’s Central Park.

Controversy exists regarding the long-term effects of exposure to low levels of potentially neurotoxic substances.

Therapeutic uses of organophosphates

Several organophosphate agents are being tried therapeutically. Cholinesterase inhibition, which in large doses makes these agents effective pesticides, also may be useful in other doses for treating dementia. Metrifonate has been used to treat schistosomiasis and is undergoing trials for the treatment of primary degenerative dementia.

The organophosphates pyridostigmine and physostigmine are carbamate anticholinesterases that have been used for many years for the treatment of myasthenia gravis. Although the short-duration anticholinesterases are generally safe, reports of their abuse are associated with a picture similar to pesticide intoxication.

One of the author’s patients had been diagnosed erroneously as a myasthenic. Long-term “therapeutic” doses of physostigmine chemically altered her neuromuscular junctions to the point where she had to be slowly weaned from the drug.

Sung and others have reported on the ability of these substances to induce nicotinic receptor modulation. This explains the action of these drugs and may result in development of more effective agents.

Historic and new uses of organophosphates

The first organophosphate was synthesized in 1850. Physostigmine was used to treat glaucoma in the 1870s. By the 1930s, synthetic cholinesterase inhibitors were being used for skeletal muscle and autonomic disorders. Some organophosphates were tried in the treatment of parkinsonism.

In 1986, testing began for tacrine, the first cholinesterase inhibitor to be tried for Alzheimer disease; it was released for clinical use in 1993. It is no longer in use. The blood-brain barrier has been the limiting factor in developing a cholinesterase inhibitor for use in dementia. Drugs such as rivastigmine are now widely used. Reported adverse effects are nausea and vomiting, with resultant weight loss because of the increase in cholinergic activity. It has been shown to be useful in mild to moderately severe Alzheimer disease.

Pyridostigmine has been tried for the fatigue of postpolio syndrome but showed no benefit.

 

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1175139-overview

“How could intelligent beings seek to control a few unwanted species by a method that contaminated the entire environment and brought the threat of disease and death even to their own kind ” ~ A Silent Spring; Rachel Carson 1962

“Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most dangerous and persistent organic chemicals are pesticides. Pesticides are categorized into four main substituent chemicals: herbicides; fungicides; insecticides and bactericides.” – Wikipedia

On the left an organic farm whose main crop is citrus. This farm is shipping to other islands where the demand for organic produce is steadily growing. On the right a citrus farm using pesticides to kill everything at ground level. Considering that those who eat organic have much lower levels of chemical toxins in their body which do you want to eat?

From the first time I saw the results of gramaxone I was blown away that people were applying something that killed the foliage of plants almost immediately to the very soil they grew their food in. Even more shocking they were applying it around the food they were growing and soon eating.

I started researching this chemical – a chemical local people were told was “safe” – I talked to one farmer who remembered representatives of the agricultural companies coming out to the farmers fields in lab coats to tell them how “safe” it was.  A friend of mine remembers a UNESCO calendar advertising how easy life would be with gramoxone.

In Canada and around the world the same information was being disseminated about other pesticides and the results have been disastorous.

In the past only a few spoke out against this deluge of basically unproven chemicals being poured on our soil; those who did were soon silenced.

It was the 1990’s when I realized that a chemical pesticide known as agent orange caused a lot of sickness in Vietnam Vets – I began to feel it was my duty to inform. I realized that the chemicals in the lethal blend used in the Vietnam War were used on the food we eat too.

AFTER YEARS OF DENYING ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS AND DISEASE IN HUMANS; unrefutable evidence is showing that there is undeniable proof that agricultural chemicals do cause disease. Study after study is showing the links. Class action suits are gathering all over the world. If you or I caused this many people to get sick or die we would be jailed for life!

Some of our agricultural chemicals are neuro toxins first used in the second world war.

Farmers here are still using these dangerous chemicals many of them as in the case of gramoxone are illegal in other parts of the world.

Where ever I travel I find that farmers often say “Oh I don’t use those chemicals for the food I eat; just the food I sell!”

One way to encourage local farmers to grow organic is to request it; pay a little more for quality organic food and the farmers will address the need.

Nobody can deny the connections to disease now:

Canada

Pesticide exposure linked to lower birth weights and earlier birth Lower birth weights and premature births are linked to respiratory problems and problems with learning and behaviour.

Canadian Hydro Sprayed Agent Orange to Clear Corridors “The Toronto Star interviewed former Hydro employees, including summer students and senior managers, who were assured the chemicals were harmless. The illnesses they’ve been dealing with the past few decades tell a different story.”

Agent Orange Soaked Ontario Teens – Forestry use of Agent Orange

The Agent Orange Association of Canada – this small group got an immediate compensation package of $20,000 CDN because agent orange (gramoxone) was sprayed in this army base.

UK

Inquiry into sheep dip ‘sickness’.  Hundreds of Scottish farmers allege that organophosphate dips have caused serious physical and psychological damage.

Denmark

Pesticides and Non Hodgkins Lymphoma

United States

Rotenone and Paraquat Linked to Parkinson’s Disease. Participants with Parkinsons Disease were 2.5 times more likely than controls to have reported  use of rotenone or paraquat (gramoxone).

Birth Defects from agricultural chemicals. The coalition testified pregnant women and developing fetuses are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of pesticides, which can cause spontaneous abortion, growth retardation, structural birth defects, or functional deficits.

The Veterans Association – Veterans exposed to Herbicides Vietnam Veterans who contract any of the diseases listed on this page are able to get financial assistance.

The national birth defects registry shows the effects of agent orange on the next generation!

Study Links Pesticides to Parkinson’s Studies all over the world link pesticides to Parkinson’s; I just heard of a person in their mid 20’s with the start of this disease.

Elevated serum levels of pesticides linked to Parkinson’s Disease

Atrazine in well waters in agricultural areas Concentrations as low as 0.1 ppb have been shown to alter the development of sex characteristics in male frogs.

France

France’s highest court has ruled that US agrochemical giant Monsanto had not told the truth about the safety of its best-selling weed-killer, Roundup.

Argentina

Monsanto is being brought to court by dozens of Argentinean tobacco farmers who say that the biotech giant knowingly poisoned them with herbicides and pesticides and subsequently caused ”devastating birth defects” in their children.

Nicaraugua

Amvac Chemical of Newport Beach will pay 13 Nicaraguan workers exposed to DBCP on banana plantations nearly 30 years ago.

“For far too long humankind has set itself apart from the world it inhabits – attempting to control and subvert natural forces, using the earths resourses freely without replenishing them. ~ Bound to the Earth by James Swan Ph.D and Roberta Swan 

 

Dr. Don Huber, a senior soil scientist at Purdue University, believes the appearance and prevalence of a newly discovered organism that may have the potential to cause infertility and spontaneous abortion in farm animals  may be related to the nation’s over reliance on the weed killer known as Roundup and/or to something about the genetically engineered Roundup-Ready crops. In a letter to Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, the professor called on the federal government to immediately stop deregulation of roundup ready crops, particularly roundup ready alfalfa.

Below is the full text of the letter:

Dear Secretary Vilsack:

A team of senior plant and animal scientists have recently brought to my attention the discovery of an electron microscopic pathogen that appears to significantly impact the health of plants, animals, and probably human beings. Based on a review of the data, it is widespread, very serious, and is in much higher concentrations in Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and corn—suggesting a link with the RR gene or more likely the presence of Roundup.  This organism appears NEW to science!

This is highly sensitive information that could result in a collapse of US soy and corn export markets and significant disruption of domestic food and feed supplies. On the other hand, this new organism may already be responsible for significant harm (see below). My colleagues and I are therefore moving our investigation forward with speed and discretion, and seek assistance from the USDA and other entities to identify the pathogen’s source, prevalence, implications, and remedies.

We are informing the USDA of our findings at this early stage, specifically due to your pending decision regarding approval of RR alfalfa. Naturally, if either the RR gene or Roundup itself is a promoter or co-factor of this pathogen, then such approval could be a calamity. Based on the current evidence, the only reasonable action at this time would be to delay deregulation at least until sufficient data has exonerated the RR system, if it does.

For the past 40 years, I have been a scientist in the professional and military agencies that evaluate and prepare for natural and manmade biological threats, including germ warfare and disease outbreaks. Based on this experience, I believe the threat we are facing from this pathogen is unique and of a high risk status. In layman’s terms, it should be treated as an emergency.

A diverse set of researchers working on this problem have contributed various pieces of the puzzle, which together presents the following disturbing scenario:

Unique Physical Properties

This previously unknown organism is only visible under an electron microscope (36,000X), with an approximate size range equal to a medium size virus. It is able to reproduce and appears to be a micro-fungal-like organism. If so, it would be the first such micro-fungus ever identified. There is strong evidence that this infectious agent promotes diseases of both plants and mammals, which is very rare.

Pathogen Location and Concentration

It is found in high concentrations in Roundup Ready soybean meal and corn, distillers meal, fermentation feed products, pig stomach contents, and pig and cattle placentas.

Linked with Outbreaks of Plant Disease

The organism is prolific in plants infected with two pervasive diseases that are driving down yields and farmer income—sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soy, and Goss’ wilt in corn. The pathogen is also found in the fungal causative agent of SDS (Fusarium solani fsp glycines).

Implicated in Animal Reproductive Failure

Laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of this organism in a wide variety of livestock that have experienced spontaneous abortions and infertility. Preliminary results from ongoing research have also been able to reproduce abortions in a clinical setting.

The pathogen may explain the escalating frequency of infertility and spontaneous abortions over the past few years in US cattle, dairy, swine, and horse operations. These include recent reports of infertility rates in dairy heifers of over 20%, and spontaneous abortions in cattle as high as 45%.

For example, 450 of 1,000 pregnant heifers fed wheatlege experienced spontaneous abortions. Over the same period, another 1,000 heifers from the same herd that were raised on hay had no abortions. High concentrations of the pathogen were confirmed on the wheatlege, which likely had been under weed management using glyphosate.

Recommendations

In summary, because of the high titer of this new animal pathogen in Roundup Ready crops, and its association with plant and animal diseases that are reaching epidemic proportions, we request USDA’s participation in a multi-agency investigation, and an immediate moratorium on the deregulation of RR crops until the causal/predisposing relationship with glyphosate and/or RR plants can be ruled out as a threat to crop and animal production and human health.

It is urgent to examine whether the side-effects of glyphosate use may have facilitated the growth of this pathogen, or allowed it to cause greater harm to weakened plant and animal hosts. It is well-documented that glyphosate promotes soil pathogens and is already implicated with the increase of more than 40 plant diseases; it dismantles plant defenses by chelating vital nutrients; and it reduces the bioavailability of nutrients in feed, which in turn can cause animal disorders. To properly evaluate these factors, we request access to the relevant USDA data.

I have studied plant pathogens for more than 50 years. We are now seeing an unprecedented trend of increasing plant and animal diseases and disorders. This pathogen may be instrumental to understanding and solving this problem. It deserves immediate attention with significant resources to avoid a general collapse of our critical agricultural infrastructure.

Sincerely,

COL (Ret.) Don M. Huber
Emeritus Professor, Purdue University
APS Coordinator, USDA National Plant Disease Recovery System (NPDRS)  

Interview with Dr. Huber

http://www.vimeo.com/22997532?ab