An upsetting video of a plastic straw being removed from the nostril of a sea turtle shows the grim reality of how plastic litter impacts marine life.

Straws are a fine example of the way we have been brainwashed into consuming. Since when did we need a straw to drink? Since companies started making them for profit! The drink does not stay cleaner or taste better.

Sometimes a small move can have huge effects. In my 20’s I decided to stop using straws. If you consider an average person uses at least 1 straw a day then throws it away – that means I have stopped with that 1 small move the release of 14,600 straws into the environment. I still have years left to continue this joyful move – clean up your environment – one small policy at a time.

I also saved 14,600 paper straw covers.

I have less BPA in my system from drinking liquids through a straw – BPA has all kinds of ramifications including obesity as this is one of the chemicals in our environment that causes the storage of unhealthy fat.

An upsetting video of a plastic straw being removed from the nostril of a sea turtle shows the grim reality of how plastic litter impacts marine life.

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Unless you are eating 100% organic the answer is yes!

The chemicals we put on our gardens and farms are often organophosphates and they are neurotoxins very similar to nerve gas.

Chemical warfare was introduced to a shocked world during the First World War. The development of chemical warfare agents during the Second World War led to the so-called “nerve gases,” which are quick-acting poisons attacking the nervous system. In the second world war Nerve Gas was a feared and terrible weapon. I remember my grandfather telling stories of people who had come back from the war and described the experience: convulsions; seizures; confusion; irritation; anger; loss of memory and executive function.

As a Health and Wellness Consultant and Writer I have written many articles on studies showing the dangers of agricultural chemicals and I knew more than one study had shown links between agricultural chemicals and Parkinson’s Disease.

Over the years as I delved more deeply I found there were a lot of similar symptoms in many Dementias; Parkinson’s Disease and other Brain Diseases of today.

I asked a local doctor that I respect very much if he thought there could be a connection. He said he theorized from his many years of observations that older farmers he saw were functioning differently neurologically then those the same age with other jobs with less exposure to chemicals.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s
Physical Symptoms
Mental Symptoms

Symptoms of Dementia

At first I could not find any studies linking agricultural chemicals and dementia but years later they are starting to be published one by one and it is sad to think that we are doing this to ourselves for money.

Then I found a study in France that supported my friends theory

I was just blown away when I began to realize that a lot of the chemicals that we put on our food are “neurotoxins” very similar to the nerve gas of Chemical Warfare.

Researchers measured the levels of pesticide byproducts in the urine of 1,139 children from across the United States. Children with above-average levels of one common byproduct had roughly twice the odds of getting a diagnosis of ADHD, according to the study, which appears in the journal Pediatrics.

Recently it was projected that one in —- would have dementia over the age of 60;

According to the ‘Gulf War and Health published by the National Academies Press: “the persistent abnormalities seen in sarin victims that last long after the acute toxicity has resolved appear to be similar to the long-term neurobehavioral effects seen after acute intoxication from organophosphate pesticides (Delgado et al., 2004; London et al., 1998; Rosenstock et al., 1991; Savage et al., 1988; Steenland et al., 1994; Wesseling et al., 2002).

Organophosphate pesticides (as well as sarin and VX nerve agent) irreversibly inactivate acetylcholinesterase, which is essential to nerve function in insects, humans, and many other animals.

Meta-analysis was carried out by the University College of London to determine the neurotoxic effects of long-term exposure to low levels of organophosphates (OPs) in occupational settings.

It was released around the start of January 2013 and their conclusions are

The majority of well designed studies found a significant association between low-level exposure to OPs and impaired neurobehavioral function which is consistent, small to moderate in magnitude and concerned primarily with cognitive functions such as psychomotor speed, executive function, visuospatial ability, working and visual memory.

Listen to what this farmer has to say about the organophosphates they were forced to dip their sheep in.

 

Listen to this Organic Farmer’s observations on Mad Cow disease and neurotoxins.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MheeiX2w8JU

I love the name of this farm too.

Karen and Roy have never wavered from their dedication to farming organically and promoting organic farming within Dominica and the Caribbean.

They have an innovative way of marketing and selling their produce. They send out a weekly email describing what they have; you have time to peruse what’s available that week in the peace and quiet of your home/office; then you place your order by email at least 24 hours in advance. Then you pick it up at the Saturday market in Roseau. Their newsletters are informative and enjoyable to read.

You can just visit their booth at the Farmer’s Market Saturday morning if you wish but a few of their items are available only by email so always check to see if it is a request or special order item so you don’t get disappointed.

Roots Farm are there from about 6:30 AM to just after Noon.

Their table is right across from KFC on Hanover Street.

Note: there is a service charge of $5 for orders under $75.

The following is an example of their email newsletter.

THIS WEEK’S PRODUCE:

FRUITS & FRUIT TREES: Grapefruit, Red or White: 5/$2. For juice and fresh eating although still a little tart. Grapefruit helps control weight with flavonoids that block the uptake of fatty acids into cells, protects heart health with generous amounts of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and pectin, and helps protect against cancer. Pink and red varieties contain additional valuable anti-oxidants and red contains lycopene, a phytochemical that helps prevent the LDL cholesterol damage. Despite its own acidity, grapefruit has a beneficial alkalizing effect on the body. Cautions: grapefruit may halt the metabolism of some drugs, while excessive consumption can leach calcium from the body system, causing decay of the bones and teeth.

Strawberry Plants: in Flats: $10 each or 2 in same pot for $15. PLEASE REQUEST. These are a medium size real Northern type strawberry with very good real strawberry flavor. The type has been demonstrated to thrive and produce in higher elevations (Cochrane and Bellevue Chopin) in Dominica, but not tested, to my knowledge, along coast although the Taiwanese had a similar (same?) variety that did well in the Stock Farm area. Plants are vigorous producer of runners (more plants for you).

Tanmawen dezenn Seedlings: aka Tamawe de zen/Spanish Tamarind/Chinee tambran: (Vangueria madagascariensis): $20. PLEASE REQUEST. Well rooted, 2-2.5′ seedlings. Sweet, almost date like fruit, usually eaten dry in Dominica, although used fresh elsewhere. Grows as a profusely branched shrub or small tree, 2-15 m tall. Does best in drier parts of island. Species getting rare; deserves to survive: have room for a tree? ______________________________________________________________________

ROOTS

Turmeric aka “Saffwan”: 8 oz/$2.50. This celebrated health-boosting spice is not usually found organically grown and is easy to store for months. Mostly used dried, as in curry powder, fresh root tastes even better than dry grated into rice, beans, soups, etc. for color and warm, peppery flavor. Good grated into pesto or raw foods too. A true superfood, TCM and Ayurvedic Medicinal star known for strengthening and improving digestion, elimination and metabolism; supporting healthy liver function and detoxification; purifying blood; acting as an anti-inflammatory; containing curcuminoids that fight cancer, arthritis, and Alzheimer’s; and so much more. Note: surfaces (and hands) coming in contact with cut turmeric will get orange stains which eventually wear off. Also note that consuming with black pepper vastly increases the availability of turmeric’s healthful properties.

Yams, White & Lady’s: $2.50/lb Lady’s; $2/lb White. Limited supply. Yams provide some protein and a lot of starch, in the form of complex carbohydrates and soluble dietary fiber (which together are recommended as low glycemic index healthy food which also reduces constipation, decreases bad or “LDL” cholesterol levels, and helps prevent colon cancer). Yams also provide vitamin c and minerals.

VEGETABLES

Bean, Lima — fresh: $5/lb; $2.75/.5 lb. in shell (must be shelled before cooking); 7.5 oz/$6 shelled. Also called Butter Beans, fresh limas may just be the next best thing to edamame or fresh green peas. They also make an excellent hummus, replacing chickpeas. Cook lightly. Limas are a very good source of cholesterol-lowering, blood-sugar modulating fiber, making them an especially good choice for individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia. When combined with whole grains such as rice, lima beans provide virtually fat-free high quality protein. They are an excellent source of molybdenum and iron and can make a major contribution to heart and cardiovascular health due to their folate and magnesium content. Their manganese helps energy production and acts as an antioxidant to disable free radicals.

Bean, Lima — Dry: $9/lb. shelled. Limited supply Dry limas require long cooking like other dry beans, but similarly reward with flavor and nutrition. Limas are a very good source of cholesterol-lowering, blood-sugar modulating fiber, making them an especially good choice for individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance or hypoglycemia. When combined with whole grains such as rice, lima beans provide virtually fat-free high quality protein. They are an excellent source of molybdenum and iron and can make a major contribution to heart and cardiovascular health due to their folate and magnesium content. Their manganese helps energy production and acts as an antioxidant to disable free radicals.

Christophene/Chayote: 3/$2. Mild flavored and low calorie, christophene is most often served cooked but can also be enjoyed raw in salads. Skin and seed are also edible (as are leaves and roots). It is rich in amino acids, vitamins (especially Vitamin C and folate), antioxidants, minerals and fiber.

Edible “Hibiscus” (Hibiscus manihot, Bele or Abelmoschus manihot) – LEAVES: 10 oz/$2.50. Nice tasting, large highly nutritious leaves are mucilaginous, so are a good quick-cooking thickener for soups, but can also be steamed, stir-fried, or used as other greens. Bele makes the best ever “kale chips” (Wash & dry the leaves & spray or toss lightly with cooking oil, then sprinkle with salt & your choice of spices/herbs. Spread single layer onto baking pan and bake at 275-300 F about 10-15 minutes until crisp. Enjoy right away or store in air tight container to preserve crispness.) Also makes a great wrap, either raw or cooked, for your delectable fillings (see recipe at: http://www.ecobotanica.com.au/Stuffed-Vine-Leaves-Using-Edible-Hibiscus-Leaves-bgp1032.html), Among the most nutritious of greens, Bele is very high in vitamins A and C, in iron and protein. Used in numerous Asian healing systems to relieve inflammation, urinary infection, chronic bronchitis, pain and irritation. Its stems are antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral. The bark is said to be emmenagogue, increasing menstruation and should be avoided by pregnant women. To be on safe side, perhaps leaves should be avoided as well by pregnant women. A paste of the bark is used to treat wounds and cuts; the root juice is warmed and applied to sprains; the juice of the flowers is used to treat chronic bronchitis and toothache; and the plant is thought to increase bone density.

Edible “Hibiscus” (aka Hibiscus manihot, Bele, Abelmoschus manihot) – STEMS: $1, 2 oz sample pack. PLEASE REQUEST. Lovely light-sweet flavor like nothing else I know, the stems are wonderful by themselves as a crunchy (but also slightly gooey) healthy snack or chopped into salads, soups, stir-fries; juiced into smoothies and green drinks; as crudités, etc. Lots of potential for creative use to capitalize on unique flavor. Older stems may need the outer layer peeled. Stems are antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral. Please read cautions above for leaves.

Mustard Leaves: 50 cents/oz. Limited supply. Another of the cruciferous superstars (like kale & broccoli) whether used young and relatively mild or mature and strong flavored. Use fresh for pepping up your salad, sandwiches, omelets, or cooking. Mustard’s bite mellows somewhat when cooked. Mustard provides plentiful vitamins, minerals, fiber, detox & cardiovascular support, anti-oxidant & anti-inflammatory benefits. Folks with kidney and/or gallbladder problems should probably avoid due to oxalate content. Lots of good info at: www.whfoods.com

Pumpkin: $1.25/lb whole; VERY LARGE pumpkins. $2.00/lb. slices. Fully ripe & dry. Typical Dominican sweet delicious pumpkin delivers the vitamin benefits of both a fruit and a vegetable. Like other orange vegetables, pumpkin has high vitamin A content. It also has significant amounts of vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, B-6 and folate and provides iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

Sweet Potato Greens: 10 oz/$2.50. Say what? Sweet potato leaves are delicious and nutritious and widely used in Africa and Asia. Steam, saute, add to soups and stews or cook like any quick-cooking green. According to FAO leaflet No. 13 – 1990, they are a good source of vitamins A, C, and B2 (riboflavin), and an excellent source of lutein. According to research from the University of Arkansas, sweet potato leaves are high in disease-fighting antioxidants, containing 15 different compounds helpful for preventing heart disease, diabetes, infection and some types of cancer.

HERBS

Basil: $2.50/Regular Mix; $3/any single variety or special mix. Protects cell structures as well as chromosomes from radiation and oxygen-based damage and provides protection against unwanted bacterial growth, including the ability to inhibit several species of pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotic drugs. In addition, basil qualifies as an “anti-inflammatory” food that can provide important healing benefits along with symptomatic relief for individuals with inflammatory health problems like rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel conditions. Basil is a good source of nutrients essential for cardiovascular health, including Vitamin A and magnesium, as well as iron, calcium, potassium and vitamin C. As a member of the Mint family, basil is used for its digestive and anti-gas properties. Herbalists also recommend it for stomach cramps, vomiting, constipation, headaches, and anxiety. We have the following types available. Please let us know if you want us to bring a specific type for you.

Basil, Holy Green aka Tulsi: $3. Stars in Ayurvedic healing as: nerve tonic, stomach, heart and kidney strengthener, dengue preventive, and blood purifier as well as for stress, memory, fever, colds and flu, coughs, skin disorders, headaches, eye problems, hypertension, and much more. Lovely in a bouquet or for tea or cooking, but not really a culinary substitute for Italian/pesto basils. Recent fame as a Swine Flu deterrent/ameliorative. See: www.holy-basil.com

Basil, Holy Red: $3. PLEASE REQUEST. Like Holy Green Basil, but stronger tasting, Holy Red is a super herb medicinally: supports cortisol, blood sugar, protects cells from radiation damage, and so much more. Also lovely in a bouquet or for tea or cooking, but not really a substitute for Italian/pesto basils.

BASIL MIXES:

Basil Regular/Tea Mix: may include: Lemon, Thai, Malaysian, Holy Red, Holy Green (Tulsi), East Indian, Cinnamon/Mexican, Italian, Anise, various showy spicy purple basils, local (Spicy Globe) and more. May contain dark colors or stronger flavors than the Pesto or Southeast Asian mixes. Good for teas, but also for cooking or salad herbs. Basil protects cell structures as well as chromosomes from radiation and oxygen-based damage and against unwanted bacterial growth. In addition, it qualifies as an “anti-inflammatory” food that can provide important healing benefits along with symptomatic relief for individuals with inflammatory health problems like rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel conditions. Basil is a good source of nutrients essential for cardiovascular health, including Vitamin A and magnesium, as well as iron, calcium, potassium and vitamin C..

Basil, Pesto Mix: $3. Heavy on Italian, Thai, Malaysian, Lemon, Blue Spice & other varieties that make a great pesto and none of the stronger tasting (e.g., East Indian, Anise, Cinnamon) or red varieties. Do try substituting cooked breadnuts for pine nuts/almonds and coconut oil for olive oil for a wholly local version of pesto that equals or betters the traditional Italian. Purslane or papalo can be added to increase the nutritional value and add further depth to the taste. Basil,

SouthEast Asian Mix: $3. PLEASE REQUEST. Thai and Malaysian varieties. In SE Asian cooking, these are usually added at the very end of cooking to retain bright green color. Can also be used for pesto.

Bay Leaves: Fresh. PLEASE REQUEST. In addition to its culinary uses (soups, stews, sauces, etc.), Sweet bay is used medicinally as a tea to soothe the stomach and relieve flatulence and in ointments to relieve the aches and pains associated with rheumatism, and for sprains, bruises, and skin rashes. Do not use if pregnant or breast-feeding.or are scheduled for surgery in the next two weeks as it might cause excessive sedation combined with medications. Folk use: Cancer, dandruff, and relieving gas.

Chinese Garlic Chive aka Chinese Leek: Wonderful in and on most everything, raw or cooked (add at end of cooking for best flavor). Flavor like a mild garlic-onion cross. Low fat, high in fiber, Vitamin C and carotene, plus moderate calcium, Vitamins B1 and B2. In Chinese medicine, garlic chives are considered to be a yin or warming food that like other members of the garlic and onion family, contain a sulphur-rich mustard oil that aids digestion and helps promote the flow of blood.

Chive, Fine: PLEASE REQUEST. Limited supply. Used for delicate “onion” flavor, raw or cooked, and as a garnish. Chives aid digestion and stimulate appetite, are good for the respiratory system, help reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and have anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties.

Culantro/Chadron Benee/Shado beni/Recao: By any name, this herb tastes like cilantro and is used similarly, as well as starring in Puerto Rican specialties like sofrito and salsas. Nutritionally, it offers calcium, iron, carotene, and riboflavin. Its medicinal value includes as a tea for pneumonia, flu, diabetes, constipation, depression, fevers, and blood purification. It is also used in chutneys as an appetite stimulant and is reported to have anti-convulsant properties and to help with vomiting and diarrhea. In addition to packages of leaves, we can supply the flower/seed scapes, the plant part most commonly used locally in tea, rum or food.

Dill: Limited supply. PLEASE REQUEST. Most commonly used in pickles, salads and fish dishes, dill has chemoprotective and bacteriostatic properties and is a very good source of calcium. Dill is also a good source of dietary fiber and the minerals manganese, iron and magnesium.

Lemon Balm: PLEASE REQUEST. Mint family herb useful in salad or for fish, also makes a lovely, almost flowery) tasting tea with antibacterial and antiviral properties (effective against herpes simplex) also useful as a mild sedative or calming agent. Try it in your own unique version of Mojito. Lemon balm should be avoided by those on thyroid medication as the herb may inhibit absorption.

Lemon Grass PLEASE REQUEST. With the bulb for Thai and other SE Asian (and other) recipes; leaves for tea. Grating the bulb or fine slicing it into whatever sauce, curry, stir-fry, etc. you are making gives a lovely flavor accent and benefits of the fiber and other nutrients, but the stalk and leaves could also be pounded or bruised and added to your pot for flavor and removed before serving. Lemongrass, ginger and garlic are wonderful as flavoring combo. for a winged bean stir-fry. See recipes at: recipes.epicurean.com. Lemongrass has many antioxidant, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antifungal agents. It is used as a sedative/calming agent, to detoxify digestive organs, to stimulate digestion and blood circulation, and for hypertension.

Mints Mix Peppermint, Spearmint and a local (lovely, but unknown variety) mint. Culinary use in salads, mint jelly, tea, mojitos, more. Relieves many kinds of stomach distress, contains phytonutrients shown to stop growth of tumors, inhibits various bacteria and fungal growth, has anti-oxidant properties, helps airways stay free in asthma and colds, and provides nutrients like manganese, vitamin C and vitamin A, dietary fiber, folate, iron, magnesium, and calcium, vitamin B2, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium and copper. And we haven’t even mentioned mojitos yet.

Moringa Leaves, fresh (Dry also available): 2 oz/$3. Currently widely hyped but with good reason as Moringa is a powerful nutrient rich food, potent detoxifier, and therapeutic support for numerous health challenges and conditions. Loaded with vitamins and minerals, and protein with all 8 essential amino acids, plus others, and 46 anti-oxidants, it also tastes good (slightly spicy) fresh in salads, as garnish, in green drinks or lightly cooked addition to most anything. Moringa functions as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiparasitic. It balances sugar and cholesterol levels, stimulates the immune system and metabolism, supports digestion and protects liver and kidneys. Caution: may not be appropriate for those taking blood-thinning medications and the seeds, powerful detoxicants, may cause problems with intestinal walls, kidney & liver if taken daily or in excessive amounts. Leaves can be utilized daily. See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3retnQVSOs&feature=share Click HERE for even more about Moringa.

Parsley, Italian Flat: A little milder and sweeter than curly parsley and used the same. Has similar anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties, benefits heart health and rheumatoid arthritis, and provides generous amounts of Vitamins K, C, A, and Folate, plus iron. Makes a great tabouleh.

Parsley, Japanese, aka Mitsuba: PLEASE REQUEST. Unique flavor, said to taste like angelica, celery, and parsley. All parts are edible, fresh or cooked in soups, salads, tempura batter, rice, as seasoning, etc. Cook lightly only as it can get bitter and lose taste if cooked for more than a few minutes. Offers Vitamins A, B’s, C, E and K, as well as minerals. Medicinally used for women’s complaints and in the treatment of hemorrhages, colds, and fevers.

Sage: Limited supply. PLEASE REQUEST. Culinary. American traditional favorite for poultry, stuffings. sausages, ground meats, fish, salads, soups, and stews. Also serves as an antispasmodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, expectorant, nervine, and tonic. Small bunches.

Shimonita Scallions: 60 cents/oz, about $3-4/stem, depending on size. PLEASE REQUEST. Large Sweet Scallion variety from Japan: Very special. No waste: the green tops are delicious cooked in most everything. You’d be hard pressed to tell this from leeks by flavor, although texturally leeks are creamier after cooking. Like other scallions or “sive,” Shimonita has vitamin and mineral benefits (vitamin K, essential to blood clotting and strong bones; vitamin A, supporting eye health and cellular function; vitamin C with its antioxidant and many other virtues; folate, for energy production and birth defect prevention; Calcium, strengthening bones and teeth; Magnesium, which helps with muscle contraction, energy production and enzyme and protein activity; Potassium for regulating electrical activity, including heart beat, mineral and fluid balance; and manganese, a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant. TCM uses scallions for dispersing chill and colds, relieving congestion, fighting fungal and bacterial infections, and relaxing muscle tension.

Soursop Leaves: PLEASE REQUEST. Fresh or dry. Lovely tasting tea is used for sleep inducing qualities and cancer prevention and cure. Scientific research conducted by The U.S. National Cancer Institute concluded that Soursop leaves can effectively attack and destroy cancer cells. In addition to this, folk uses include for: inflammation, rheumatism, diabetes, nerves, skin conditions (boils, eczema, etc.), liver, bladder & uric acid, and many more uses. Not for use by folks with low blood pressure or taking hypertensive drugs without proper monitoring of blood pressure.

Thyme, Broad Leaf aka Grosdite: aka Cuban oregano, Spanish Thyme. PLEASE REQUEST. Used for chicken, fish, meat, beans, pelau, risotto, as part of Jamaican “jerk” seasoning, and as part of green seasoning. Can be used in same ways as common thyme, but has stronger flavor, and is often used chopped fresh. Grosdite has antibacterial and fungicidal properties and is used for stomach complaints, fevers, colds, coughs, sore throats, infections, rheumatism and flatulence.

CHOCOLATE! CHOCOLATE BARS: $15/4oz or 110 gm bar. A not overly sweet treat made by Alan Napier at Pointe Baptiste estate in Calibishie. Bars may be ordered from the list below or you can take your chances at the table. Nearly all the cocoa used is grown organically either on the estate or bought from people who grow their cocoa organically. Currently we have the following varieties in stock: Coffee chocolate with organic Robusta coffee; 60% cocoa Dark chocolate with 80% cocoa Ginger chocolate with 60% cocoa Hot Pepper chocolate with 60% cocoa Milk chocolate with 50% cocoa — SOLD OUT Mint chocolate with 60% cocoa Spice chocolate with nutmeg, cinnamon and clove; 60% cocoa Tangerine chocolate with 60% cocoa

COCOA POWDER: SOLD OUT temporarily $5/100 gm packet. PLEASE REQUEST. This is 100% cocoa powder, derived after Alan presses the cocoa to extract the cocoa butter (which he then mixes with more cocoa to make chocolate. The cocoa powder is used for making cakes, cocoa tea, etc. In Europe it is sold in shops as Vanhouten cocoa powder. This is really beautiful delicious cocoa. For a special treat try these divine Chocolate Energy Balls: http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-10534/raw-recipe-chocolate-energy-balls.html _________________________________________________________________________________

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS: $15/2 Kg Bag. PLEASE REQUEST. Imported from Belgium by W.M. Hollerman. (Holldom2@gmail.com, 316-2026) from whom larger size bags are also available. This is what we use, along with our own compost and pen manure (when we can get it uncontaminated with antibiotics or arsenic or other of the problematic additives to commercial feed passed through to the manure). We are very impressed with the results we get from this line of fertilizers. Three formulas are available:

VIVISOL: SOIL CONDITIONER/MICROBIAL STIMULATOR: Use in each planting hole, when planting new fields and also after sowing/incorporating young plants in the soil. Provides organic matter, improves physical and biological soil fertility, increases water retention capacity, improves soil structure. The stimulation of soil life will result in higher yields, especially for tropical fruit trees. Use 5-15 kg/100m2 or about one 8 oz cup per square meter or per 3.2×3.2 foot (10.7 square feet)

VIVIKALI — FRUITS, ROOTS, TUBERS, ORNAMENTALS: Slow, continuous release provides a lot of potassium and is best used 1.5 months before fruit formation to give a lot of energy to form big thick juicy fruits or root and tuber crops or for ornamentals not needing nitrogen. Apply 5-10 kg/100 m2 or about 4 oz. per square meter or per 3.2×3.2 foot (10.7 square feet)

PLANTORGANO — BASIC FERTILIZER, VEGETABLES: Good as an initial first fertilization or together with Vivisol in the planting hole or after sowing/planting. Apply 10-15 kg/100 m² or about one 8 oz cup per square meter or per 3.2×3.2 foot (10.7 square feet) (depending on the crop)

Exercise is one of the components of a Healthy Lifestyle that make feel good hormones flow. We know the comments ‘runner’s high’ ‘yoga bliss’ – include exercise in your life just for the high or perhaps the scientifically proven benefits below.

Exercise to:

  • Improve energy levels.
  • Prevent and perhaps reverse heart disease.
  • Lower heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Improve blood cholesterol.
  • 50% less chance of some cancers.
  • 40% less chance of getting diabetes.
  • Maintain optimal body weight or body fat.
  • Build and maintain healthy muscles, bones, and joints.
  • Relieve depression and anxiety.
  • Enhance feelings of well-being and self esteem.
  • Improve work, recreation, and sport performance.
  • Improve cardiovascular and/or cardiorespiratory function.
  • Decrease blood triglycerides.
  • Improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulin resistance.
  • Increase muscle, tendon and ligament strength.
  • Strengthen immune system.
  • Shrink fat cells.
  • Stimulate brain activity.
  • Improve balance.
  • Prevent dementia.
  • Relax.
  • Enhance libido.
  • Prevent osteoporosis.
  • Build core strength
  • Enhance self esteem
  • Alleviate insomnia.
  • Improve flexibility and range of motion.
  • Manage stress.
  • Prevent or alleviate headaches.
  • Prevent or alleviate back challenges.
  • Improve menopause symptoms.
  • Improve focus and concentration.
  • Fight the effects of aging.
  • Lower health care costs.
  • Improve fibromyalgia.
  • Prevent or alleviate incontinence.
  • Look great!

No one type of exercise provides all benefits. A well-balanced exercise routine includes 1. aerobic exercise (e.g. power walking, jogging, cardio yoga, power cleaning, hiking, aerobics, martial arts, sports); 2. strength training (e.g. lifting weights, hiking, weight bearing exercises, kayaking, pull-ups and push-ups, biking, rowing, crunches); flexibility training (e.g. gymnastics, martial arts, dance, pilates, yoga). Experts recommend that adults get more than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity each day. It’s never too late to start. Even small things can count as exercise when you’re starting out – like taking a short walk, gardening or cleaning the yard. Try out different kinds of exercise to see which one inspires you.

Please consult your doctor before beginning any new diet, exercise program.

United Nations University

GEOTHERMAL TRAINING PROGRAMME
Orkustofnun, Grensásvegur 9, IS-108 Reykjavík, Iceland
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN
GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION/PRODUCTION IN DOMINICA

Thesser E. De Roche
Office of Disaster Management
Ministry of National Security, Immigration & Labour
Financial Centre, Kennedy Ave.  Roseau;  DOMINICA, W.I.

ABSTRACT
Dominica forms a part of the Volcanic Caribbees in the Lesser Antilles Island Arc and has nine active volcanoes whereas the other islands have one volcano per island. Southern Dominica is the most active part of the island and includes the Wotten Waven area, one of the sites due for geothermal exploration. Preliminary surface exploration in Wotten Waven suggests the possibility of the existence of a deep high-temperature reservoir.

Dominica is known as the “Nature Island” of the Caribbean and therefore promotes eco-tourism. Very often geothermal sites are found in environmentally sensitive areas, often of historic and cultural importance. Wotten Waven falls into this category, hence the recommendations suggested. The purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline to the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica regarding geothermal development. In the event of geothermal development, and despite being a clean and sustainable source, there are several factors to be taken into consideration due to potential impacts on the environment.

1. INTRODUCTION
The Lesser Antilles Island Arc is a chain of islands, 740 km long which stretches from the Anegada Passage in the north to the South American continental margin. Dating as far back as the Eocene period, this area has been one of high seismicity, tectonic activity and active volcanism. The Island  Arc was formed as a result of the subduction of the North American plate under the Caribbean plate.

The Lesser Antilles presents a very interesting structure. North of Dominica the island arc divides into two giving rise to the Limestone Caribbees which refers to all the islands found on the northeast end of the arc while the Volcanic Caribbees are in the more active part of the arc and comprise all the islands found on the western side or inner arc from Saba in the north, to Grenada in the south (Figure 1).

The volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles have produced a wide variety of eruptive products. The most abundant rock types are andesites. Dominica lies in the centre of the Lesser Antilles Island Arc and has a land area of 750 km². It is the most rugged of the islands; about 60% of the land is still covered with lush green vegetation. There are nine active volcanoes in Dominica, unlike in the other volcanic islands of the Lesser Antilles which feature one apiece. There has been no major magmatic eruption in recent times. Two phreatic eruptions took place in the Valley of Desolation in 1880 and in 1997. Each of the major peaks has its own radial drainage system. Also known as “The Nature Island” of the Caribbean, Dominica has one of the densest water networks per  area in the world. The island is characterized by vigorous and widespread geothermal outcrops and relatively frequent seismic episodes. Dominica boasts its three National Parks and World Heritage Site, Northern and Central Forest Reserves, its 365 rivers and streams, scenic and relatively challenging hiking trails (the level of difficulty varies), sulphur baths, bird watching, the Syndicate Parrot Reserve and much more.

The island enjoys a typical wet tropical climate with relatively high temperatures and abundant rainfall. Temperatures vary from 21-26⁰C during January to 22-30⁰C in June. At night there is very little variation in the  temperature. The temperature may not vary greatly from month to month, but the  precipitation does. Dominica has a rainy season from June to November, which is also called the Atlantic Hurricane Season. However, the rest of the year also sees rain but not as heavy. The average annual rainfall is about 5,000 millimetres. On the west coast (Leeward side) rainfall is much less abundant, only about 1,800 millimetres per year.

(The online document has a Map of the Volcanic Caribbees of the Lesser Antilles (Lindsay et al., 2005 here)

Two of the highest points in the Lesser Antilles Island Arc are found on the island of Dominica: Morne Diablotins which stands at 1,421 m and Morne Trois Pitons at 1,394 m.

The southern part of Dominica is characterized by recent volcanic activity, less than 100,000 years old. The main volcanic centres are: Morne Trois Pitons, Morne Micotrin, Grand Soufriere Hills, Morne Paradis, Morne Plat  Pays and Morne Patate. Two areas with high temperature and surface hydrothermal manifestations are recorded in the south part of the island, in connection with volcanic activity: the Wotten Waven area and the Soufriere area. They are considered potential geothermal resources.

Dominica is, in fact, the most active of all the Caribbean volcanic areas and the opinion that the island is long overdue for an eruption has been expressed by a few scientists. Sigurdsson and Carey (1980) concluded that about 30,000 years BP, a large Plinian eruption released about 58 km³ of pumiceous material / tephra in what was described as the largest eruption in the past 200,000 years in the Caribbean. The capital of Roseau and most of the island’s infrastructure lie on this pyroclastic flow fan and abound with ignimbrites, surge and airfall deposits derived from the Wotten Waven and Morne Trois Pitons caldera situated on the eastern outskirts of the capital. All conclusions indicate that the capital of Roseau is located in one of the most hazardous areas of the island.

2. REVIEW

2.1 Thermal manifestations in the Wotten Waven area
Wotten Waven is situated roughly 8 km east-northeast of the capital of Roseau. There are several surface manifestations such as hot springs, fumaroles, phreatic craters etc. present. These are mainly concentrated in two spots: The Wotten Waven village and the Boiling Lake – Valley of Desolation. The area is characterized by several bubbling pools and fumaroles of up to 99⁰C. The geothermal activity in Wotten Waven is situated in and adjacent to the River Blanc, a tributary of the Roseau River. Surface manifestations observed in and around the area have been classified into eight types: warm springs, hot springs, mineralized fluid hot springs, fumaroles, kaipohan, solfataras, fossil
alteration areas, and phreatic craters .

The geothermal activity associated with River Blanc is related to the fractured lava forming the Wotten Waven basement. Manifestations vary from steam vents, steaming ground and springs. Some springs discharge hot mineralized fluids while other springs discharge warm low-mineralized waters which give evidence to shallow aquifers heated by steam and gas. In the vicinity of the old Wotten Waven Lodge, and near the confluence  of River Blanc and Trois Pitons River, phreatic craters are anticipated.

TABLE 1: Types of surface manifestations recorded in the Wotten Waven geothermal field (adapted from Lasne and Traineau, 2005)

Cold spring: Spring discharging fluids at ambient temperature and conductivity lower than 100 μS/cm, characterized or not by light red-coloured Fe-hydroxide  deposits, associated or not with diffuse degassing (H2S).

Warm spring: Spring discharging warm fluids at a temperature lower than 50-60°C and conductivity lower than 1,000 μS/cm, usually isolated, characterized by red coloured Fe-hydroxide deposits.

Hot spring: Spring discharging low-mineralized fluids (conductivity lower than 1,000 μS/cm) at a temperature higher than 60°C; isolated or observed within
Solfatara areas along with other thermal manifestations; white-coloured
deposits (silica, carbonates, zeolites), black-coloured deposits (Fesulphides),
red-coloured Fe-hydroxide deposits.

Mineralized hot spring: Spring discharging fluids at a temperature higher than 60°C and conductivity higher than 2,000 μS/cm; isolated or observed within Solfatara areas along with other thermal manifestations; white coloured deposits (silica, carbonates, zeolites), black-coloured deposits (Fe-sulphides), red coloured Fe-hydroxides deposits.

Fumaroles Area: characterized by steam discharge, steaming ground; no or low water flow rate; no native sulphur deposit.

Kaipohan Area: characterized by cold degassing and dead vegetation (according to
Bogie et al., 1987).

Solfatara Area: with several thermal manifestations such as steam vents, fumaroles, steaming ground, mud pools, boiling pools, coloured water streams; springs may be observed or lacking; characterized by advanced argillic alteration with deposits of native sulphur, sulphate, Fe-sulphide, silica, clay material, carbonate.

Fossil alteration area: Area of extinct solfataras activity.

Phreatic crater: Vent resulting from a hydrothermal explosion; active or extinct; may be filled or not with a crater lake.

(The online document has a Map showing Location of the main hydrothermal manifestations in the lower section of the River Blanc, Roseau River and River Camelia (Sourced from CFG Services, 2005))

2.2 Structural geology
The principal sets of faults strike NE-SW, EW and N-S. Most of these structures dip vertically or at angles larger than 60⁰ (Lasne and Traineau, 2005). There is a correlation of the NESW and the NW-SE fracture sets with the main inferred faults mapped around the Wotten Waven area.

The E-W set may be considered a buried structure since it does not have any identified surface manifestations according to the geological map (BRGM, 1983).

The most permeable fracture directions are presumed to be the fracture sets trending NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S. BRGM (1984, 1985) proposed that the NE-SW fracture set is parallel to a major transverse fault trending NE-SW and crossing the island. It preferentially controls shallow geothermal fluid  circulation in the River Blanc valley. The NW-SE and N-S fracture sets are basically normal faults whose existence is corroborated by the alignment of the Morne Trois Pitons and Micotrin recent lava domes. This fracturing trend is observed in the vicinity of the Boiling Lake. Lasne and Traineau (2005) suggested that the geometry of the geothermal reservoir at depth is controlled by these NE-SW and NW-SE to N-S fracture networks, and secondarily by the E-W fractures (Figure 3).

(The online document has a Geological and structural sketch of Wotten Waven region showing the main volcanic structures (taken from BRGM, 1984)

One of the many characteristics of the Wotten Waven area is its active seismicity which contributes to fracturing, exemplified by the recent seismic episode recorded in 1998-99 (Young, 2005). This contention is supported by the presence of fractures in the most recent outcrop in the Wotten Waven area. The trends of the main fracture set striking NE-SW and the broad linear zone defined by the earthquake epicentres are seen to be similar.

2.3 Hydrothermal alteration
Hydrothermal alteration and deposition are widespread in the Wotten Waven area. Their products have been sampled in several places for X-Ray analysis. The mineral species identified are silica, zeolites, clays, carbonates, sulphates, Fe-sulphides, native sulphur and Fe-hydroxides.

Silica (cristobalite, quartz), native sulphur and sulphate (alunite) are the dominant mineral phases identified in the areas of high-temperature surface manifestations. Combined with pyrite and alunite, clay minerals such as smectites and kaolinite are also found precipitated in mud pools. They constitute an argillic type of alteration.

Deposits of white-coloured concretions from hot springs in the River Blanc are principally carbonates (calcite, dolomite) and silica (cristobalite, quartz). Veins sampled from massive lavas in the River Blanc comprise quartz, clays (smectites, kaolinite/chrysotile, and chlorite/clinochlore) and subordinate  zeolites (clinoptilolite), carbonates (calcite, siderite), sulphate (alunogen), and sulphide (pyrite).

The light-coloured coatings around warm springs are mainly amorphous carbonates (calcite, aragonite). The red-coloured vein deposits found around warm springs are predominantly goethite and hematite associated with silica (Traineau and Lasne, 2008).

2.4 Fluid geochemistry
2.4.1 General
Primary waters (Na-Cl type and Ca-Na-Cl type) and secondary waters (acid-sulphate type, Ca-Na-HCO₃ type and Na-HCO₃-SO₄ type) have been identified in the Wotten Waven area and the nearby Boiling Lake / Valley of Desolation area (BRGM, 1985; Lasne and Traineau, 2005).

High-temperature sodium chloride waters (TDS=1-5 g/l) are commonly representative of high enthalpy geothermal reservoirs. The main features of the new fluid analyses, collected during the field survey, revealing the distinct origin of hot mineralized fluids discharged in the River Blanc and the  Valley of Desolation are:
• Sodium chloride waters, identified in four high-temperature springs located in River Blanc, are marked by the presence of seawater in various ratios (from 2.5 to 13% according to the Na and Cl contents). The other fundamental component of the fluid is highly diluted water very close to meteoric water. The high-temperature exchange between this mixed fluid and a hot reservoir

The online document has: Geological and structural sketch of Wotten Waven region showing  the main volcanic structures (taken from BRGM, 1984)
rock is proven by its chemical and isotopic characteristics (oxygen-18 shift, strontium isotopes, and geothermometers). Equilibrium with an andesite-basalt reservoir rock is reached at about 210-230⁰C.

• Very close to these springs, acid sulphate and sodium-bicarbonate waters emerge and are indicative of the presence of an underground steam heated aquifer. Low-temperature sodium carbonate springs are located in Trafalgar and Laudat and also in the Camelia River (Ty Kwen Glo Cho) and probably indicate the northern and southern boundaries of the shallow HCO₃reservoir.

• Mineralized fluids discharged in the Valley of Desolation are slightly different. They contain no seawater and exhibit calcium-rich facies. Chemical geothermometers indicate a higher equilibrium temperature with the reservoir rocks, about 250-300⁰C.

As formerly proposed by Lasne and Traineau (2005), a field survey was carried out in 2008 to provide data on the geology of the Wotten Wave geothermal field.

• It emphasizes the link between the massive fractured lava formations belonging to the Wotten Waven basement and the discharge of mineralized, high-temperature fluids which could be related to a lateral outflow from a deep NaCl- type reservoir. The geothermal reservoir is thought to be developed within the fractured massive lava extruded during the old stages of the  island building (i.e. the Watt mountain volcano). The thick layer of ignimbrite deposits covering a wide area south of the Micotrin lava dome (geological map) probably acts as a caprock above the massive fractured lavas.

• The N50⁰ to N70⁰ strike direction of the main fracture set observed at Station N⁰72 is very similar to the dominant NE-SW strike direction of the fracture population recorded in Wotten Waven by Lasne and Traineau (2005). This strike direction is thought to be dominant at depth within the Wotten Waven basement. Unfortunately, the dense vegetation and soil thickness prevent the mapping of fault zones (possible priority targets for well drilling) on the surface outcrops.

• The survey in the high valley of River Blanc (Robinson Estate, Du Mas Estate) does not provide evidence of the proximity of an eruptive vent related to the so-called 1300 years old Du Mas Estate eruption which emitted the debris flow deposit observed in the River Blanc and the Roseau River Valley.
2.4.2 The 2008 field survey
The 2008 survey focused on Na-Cl rich fluids. During this survey, two medium-temperature springs discharging Na-Cl waters were sampled: one in the Trois Pitons River (St70) and the other in the  Roseau River (St72). They appear to be slightly more dilute than the Na-Cl waters sampled in the River Blanc in 2005. Based on the interpretation of their chemical and isotopic composition, additional information on the  Na-Cl rich fluid origin was obtained which supports the idea of the existence of a deep, high temperature reservoir. Sodium, chloride and bromide have a marine origin. Their composition is described by a mixing model between sea and rain water. Part of the mineralization is brought about by intense water rock interaction of this mixed water at depth. Lithium, boron, arsenic, germanium and silica contents reveal good evidence of this process. The oxygen-18 shift also indicates an exchange with rocks at high temperatures. The absence of tritium, reported by Lasne and Traineau (2005), and strontium isotopic ratios in the Na-Cl rich fluids, which indicate andesitic equilibrium values, suggests that the reservoir water transit time is long enough to ensure considerable water rock interaction in the reservoir and equilibrium at  reservoir conditions.

The results from chemical and isotope geothermometers applied to sodium chloride waters are prone to variations. Lower temperatures (170-200⁰C) are obtained using silica geothermometers and higher temperatures with Na/K and Na/K/Ca ratio geothermometers (210-250⁰C).

Considering the behaviour of some minor elements such as boron, the idea of a common origin for the Wotten Waven and the Valley of Desolation mineralized fluids is not ruled out. They might be derived from a common deep, high-temperature fluid. Late deposits and mixing with different portions of rain water and seawater might explain the observed discrepancies pointed out by Lasne and Traineau (2005) between the Na-Cl fluids discharged in the lower section of River Blanc and the Ca-Na-Cl fluids discharged in the Valley of Desolation, hence supporting the idea of distinct origins. One of the main differences is the absence of seawater in the fluids of the Valley of Desolation. The Ca-Na-Cl fluids of the Valley of Desolation appear to be less dilute and more representative of a deep Na-Cl parent fluid than the Wotten Waven fluid. Geothermometers indicate higher equilibrium temperatures (250-300⁰C), which is consistent with the hypothesis of a location closer to the deep reservoir (possible upflow zone?) (Traineau and Lasne, 2008).

2.5 Vulnerability and sensitivity of study area
2.5.1 Hydrological aspects of the study area
The Roseau River is one of the largest rivers on the island of Dominica and is fed by the Trois Pitons River, River Blanc and the Claire River. The Dominica Water Authority, DOWASCO, has four water production sites within or bordering the geothermal area; there are also two major Forestry water production sites in the vicinity .

Online document has a Map here Hydrological network of the Roseau Valley (CFG Services, 2009)

2.5.2 Ecology
Flora: Dominica has a very rich and diverse plant life. It is possible that every major group of plant life is represented. These include over one thousand species of flowering plants, such as orchids, palms, and other trees, shrubs, vines, bromeliads, sedges, grasses etc. The island also has almost two  hundred species of ferns, fungi, mosses etc. A few species are found only in Dominica.

The study area and its surroundings are rather sensitive and most definitely subject to changes with respect to the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. The geothermal study area is well inside the Morne Trois Piton National Park and the World Heritage Site and thus is of great concern.

The profile of the island, though small, has given rise to quite a variety of plants. The following eight  types of vegetation regimes are found in Dominica:
• Dry forest;
• Savannah-type vegetation;
• Semi-deciduous forest;
• Tropical rainforest;
• Mountain forest;
• Elfin woodland;
• Fumarole vegetation;
• Wetlands.

The general area and surroundings of the geothermal site include wetlands, secondary and primary forest, fumarole vegetation and abandoned agricultural areas.

Fauna: Roughly 176 species of birds have been recorded in Dominica. Fifty-nine of these live on the islands whilst a large percentage is migratory. The best known species are the two Amazona parrots, the Sisserou (Amazona imperialis), the island’s national bird, and the Jaco (Amazona arausiaca), found nowhere else in the world. Among other species of interest are the Blue-headed Hummingbird (Cyanophaia bicoler) which lives in Dominica and Martinique only, and the very rare Black-capped Petrel (Pterodroma hasistata) locally known as the Diablotin, (once thought to be extinct in Dominica), the Red necked Parrot, which is endemic to Dominica only and the Plumbeous Warbler, endemic to  Guadeloupe and Dominica.

Few animals were actually observed in the study area, but most of Dominica’s major fauna is expected to be associated with the area of interest. There are: mammals (agouti, opossum and bats), reptiles (lizards, snakes and tortoise), amphibians (particularly the Leptodactylus fallax /Crapaud or Mountain  Chicken as it is locally called), fresh water fish, crustaceans, insects and other small vertebrates.

Flora and fauna analysis was carried out at three points of the general geothermal area only which limits the overview of distribution and composition. Neither the observed plant nor animal species are known to be unique to the area and can certainly be found in other habitats on the island.

2.5.3 Vulnerability to natural hazards

Dominica’s uniqueness also makes it vulnerable to several natural hazards.

Hurricanes: Dominica’s geographical location places it in a hurricane zone. Situated in the centre of the Lesser Antilles Island Arc, Dominica has almost always been affected during the Atlantic Hurricane Season. The systems mostly develop off the western coast of Africa and frequently move in a north-westward direction, very often affecting the island. The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 to November 30.

The extent of storm damage from hurricanes is on the increase in the Caribbean. As significant wind events, hurricanes continue to have an impact on a greater number of buildings each year. In developing a high-wind hazard map, data derived from a wind hazard model were considered. The  entire area of interest falls within the relatively moderate to very high range on the wind hazard map.

Seismic activity and volcanic hazard: There are various indicators of active volcanism, for example:
• Seismic activity;
• Volcanic eruptions;
• Gas emissions;
• Ground deformation;
• Mass movement;
• Hot springs and geysers;
• Sulphur mounds.

The sulphur mounds at Soufriere, the pH of the nearby streams, the fumaroles and geysers of Wotten Waven, the volcanic mud and the general geothermal activity, and the frequent swarms of volcanic earthquakes in the north along with its sulphur springs all indicate that the island is underlain by an  active magma body.

The Wotten Waven/Micotrin centre comprises the Wotten Waven caldera, the twin Pelean domes and the associated craters of Micotrin. There is visible evidence of past eruptive history characterized by large explosive Plinian eruptions generating ignimbrites. The more recent activity has taken the form of Pelean dome-forming eruptions producing block and ash flows and smaller pumiceous pyroclastic flows. The Wotten Waven/Micotrin centre is one of the nine active volcanic centres on the island.

This area also suffers seismic activity which is of both volcanic and tectonic origin. Wotten Waven lies in a very high volcanic hazard zone but a relatively moderate seismic hazard zone.

Floods: Dominica has a very dense water network, and there is significant water density in the general area. However most of the island’s difficulty with flooding has been in the low-lying and coastal areas. Nonetheless, this does not imply that there are not small localities in the interior susceptible to floods. Generally, Wotten Waven is situated in a relatively low flood risk zone.

Landslides: Landslides are among the most common hazards in Dominica. The rugged terrain, steep slopes, volcanic and clay soils, thermal alteration, seismic activity, heavy rainfall, poor road construction and anthropogenic activities are some of the many factors which contribute to these. The general location of Wotten Waven lies within a moderate to very high risk area with regard to landslides.

2.6 Socio-cultural context and economic impact
A geothermal project will bring about significant changes to the Wotten Waven and surrounding communities. The influence of traffic congestion and disturbance, noise due to drilling and vehicular circulation, landscape issues including drill rigs and building construction, the evolution of the identity  of the Roseau Valley and the existing cultural and/ or historical heritage are a few of the issues that the neighbouring communities, and Dominicans in general, are going to have to come to terms with.

The main source of livelihood in the Wotten Waven area is tourism. The tourists who visit the sites will be disturbed by the noise, but even so the installation of geothermal plants will be an opportunity to generate technical tourism. De Roche 140 Report 11

A geothermal project will create employment for several locals. Regular maintenance of the activity of the power station will be required. In addition to supplying all Dominica’s electrical needs, the surplus electricity can be exported, hence generating additional revenue for the country.

3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF GEOTHERMAL UTILIZATION AND MITIGATING  MEASURES
3.1 General
In the event of geothermal development, there are several factors to be taken into consideration due to their potential impact on the environment, regardless of the fact that geothermal energy is a clean and sustainable source. Environmental effects vary considerably from one geothermal field and power plant to another, depending on the special characteristics of the field and power plant in question. In this respect the geology and the subsurface structure as well as the type of reservoir and the type of utilization play major roles. All possible changes must be appraised in an environmental assessment report prior to exploitation and an optimum solution devised. Environmental Impact Assessment  (EIA) has proven to be a powerful tool for environmental safeguarding in geothermal project planning.  In this respect it is of utmost importance to have knowledge of the natural behaviour of the area;  monitoring of the field is needed several years prior to development (Kristmannsdóttir and  Ármannsson, 2003; Ármannsson et al., 2000).

3.2 Impact on the environment
Geothermal utilization can present several environmental issues such as:
• Surface disturbances;
• Physical effects of fluid withdrawal;
• Noise;
• Thermal effects;
• Chemical pollution;
• Biological effects;
• Protection of natural features;
• Socio-economic effects.

3.3 Mitigation
3.3.1 Preliminary action and monitoring
A fair amount of information on environmental factors in geothermal areas should be available prior to  production. Surface manifestations may change significantly even though there is no production, as  has been observed in the Theistareykir area in Northern Iceland (Torfason, 1992; Ármannsson et al.  2000). A thorough monitoring programme has to be devised and supervised by an outside authority.

The objective of this is to be able to compare detailed information on the geothermal areas prior to and  after geothermal utilization. In order to accomplish this, the degree of compliance has to be constantly  monitored with respect to: applicable national regulations, requirements for the environmental  assessment process, environmental policy, and safety and social responsibility issues. The biology and  ecological status of the area must be established as well as the concentration of potentially hazardous  chemicals in the atmosphere and groundwater (Ármannsson and Kristmannsdóttir, 1993). Monitoring
programmes must be activated. The aim is to be able to capture the changes induced and verify  whether they occurred naturally or from outside sources and to identify deviations to be corrected.

Every geothermal area, and thus every project, is unique. Legal and institutional considerations vary  from location to location. Each resource and each well drilled into a given resource varies in  characteristics. The fluids produced from geothermal wells require the use of different types of pipes  and other equipment materials. The physical location of each project affects the availability and  quality of goods and services. Figure 5 highlights the Roseau valley.

Monitoring the quality of the environment can be carried out through programmes which consist of  systematic observation, measurements and evaluation of the various parameters using appropriate  methods and technology. For example:
• Monitoring programmes for air and noise quality;
• Monitoring programmes for surface and ground water quality;
• Monitoring programmes for soil quality.

The information obtained from monitoring programmes and its interpretation can be collected in a  periodic monitoring report on environmental quality which should be presented to the national  regulatory bodies. This certainly contributes to tracking and monitoring, and allows for continuous
The online document contains a map: Location of urban areas in the Roseau Valley  (source CFG Services– Environmental Feasibility Study, 2009)

3.3.2 Mitigation
Surface disturbances: Surface disturbances may take place during exploration and drilling activities,  but are generally temporary and small scale (ponds are drained and the landscape is reshaped). Quite  frequently, this would take place as a result of typical exploration and drilling activities, such as  localized ground clearing, vehicular traffic, seismic testing, positioning of equipment, and drilling.

Most impacts during the resource exploration and drilling phase are associated with development  (improvements or construction) of access roads and flow testing of exploratory wells. Many of these  impacts can be reduced by implementing good industrial practices and the restoration of disturbed  areas once drilling activities have been completed. A drill-site usually extends over 2000-2500 m² and  when more than one well is drilled the total surface area can be significantly reduced through  directional drilling. Very often the source is utilized near the drill-site, hence the use of short  pipelines.

Landslides: Geothermal fields are often associated with volcanic rocks such as pumice, as in
Dominica. The upper basements in geothermal fields are often thermally altered and this may increase  during utilization. Landslides are liable to take place in these areas and may place constraints on the  sites chosen for construction. There exist several examples of landslides that were directly connected  to the installation of geothermal plants (Goff and Goff, 1997); therefore, the landslide factor must be  carefully monitored.

Scenery: The scenery must be attended to since the research field is situated in an area of outstanding  beauty with endemic species, of both touristic importance and historical significance. However, one  of the positive effects of utilization is that it can serve as an added tourist attraction. Since geothermal  plants are not a very common sight and many people do not pay attention to science unless they are  immediately affected by it, one of the main attractions at the power plant could be in the form of an  active educational programme like those at the Nesjavellir and Hellisheidi power plants. The plants in
Iceland are very well designed and kept. The well heads are scattered, but are impressively housed not  only for protection, but also, so as not to cause an eye-sore. The Blue Lagoon is one of the most  popular attractions in Iceland. It is, however, certainly very difficult now to have a second “Blue  Lagoon” anywhere in the world, due to the emphasis placed on environmental protection. The silica  rich brine is basically waste fluid from the Svartsengi power plant.
Untidiness: Untidiness at the construction sites and boreholes can be very unpleasant. Therefore, this  feature should be incorporated in the monitoring programme and should be inspected regularly,  preferably by an outside agency.

3.3.3 Fluid withdrawal
Fluid withdrawal can significantly affect surface manifestations. This may cause hot springs and  geysers to disappear or to be transformed into fumaroles. In some cases it may lead to the relocation  of activity. Fluid withdrawal can also cause land subsidence, lowering of the groundwater table and  induced seismicity.
Subsidence: Land subsidence is known to occur as a consequence of fluid withdrawal from highenthalpy  reservoirs (Allis and Zhan, 1997; Allis, 2000; Eysteinsson, 2000; Glowaca et al., 2000; Lee  and Bacon, 2000). Subsidence takes place when fluid withdrawal exceeds the natural inflow into the  reservoir. This net outflow causes loose formations at the top of the withdrawal site to compact,  particularly in the case of clays and sediments. Key factors causing subsidence include:
• A pressure drop in the reservoir as a result of fluid withdrawal;
• The presence of a highly compressible geological rock formation above or in the upper part of a   shallow reservoir;
• The presence of highly permeable paths between the reservoir and the formation, and between  the reservoir and the ground surface.
If all these conditions are present, ground subsidence is likely to occur. In general, subsidence is  greater in liquid-dominated fields because of the geological characteristics typically associated with  each type of field. Generally, a large mass needs to be drawn from a liquid-dominated area for  production. These effects are local but can trigger the instability of pipelines, drains, and well casings.

They can also cause the formation of ponds and cracks in the ground and, if the site is close to a  populated area, can lead to the instability of buildings. There is evidence of subsidence from all  utilized areas but the magnitude varies considerably. The largest recorded subsidence is found in  Wairakei, New Zealand where the maximum subsidence is 15 m (400 mm/year); at Larderello, Italy,  subsidence (25 mm/year) is much less than that at Wairakei, but greater than that of Svartsengi,  Iceland where the total subsidence is less than 28 cm (10 mm/year) (Hunt, 2001; Allis, 2000,  Eysteinsson, 2000; Aust and Sustrac, 1992).

Lowering of groundwater table: Mixing of fluids between aquifers and an inflow of corrosive water  (seawater) may occur due to the lowering of the groundwater table. This may also cause the  disappearance of springs and fumaroles or changes in surface activity (Glover et al., 2000). In  addition, it can also lead to the formation or accelerated growth of a steam pillow and subsequent  boiling and degassing of the field. Such a development may induce major explosions (blow-outs), the  like of which has killed a number of people in the past (Hunt, 2001; Goff and Goff, 1997).

Seismicity: The natural seismicity may also be affected by fluid withdrawal as observed in Svartsengi  (Brandsdóttir et al., 2002). Likewise, reinjection may induce microseismicity (Hunt, 2001). Such  occurrences can mostly be avoided by a sensible choice of a reinjection site.

Fluid re-injection or, in cases where re-injection of the geothermal fluid is unsuitable, injection of  different fluids into geothermal systems can help reduce the pressure drop, subsidence and other  effects of fluid withdrawal (Björnsson and Steingrímsson, 1991). The effectiveness depends on where  the fluid is re-injected and on the permeability in the field. Commonly, re-injection is carried out at  some distance from the production well to avoid cooling of the production fluid but may not, however,  help prevent subsidence. Efficiency varies with the reinjection strategy used. The main factors which  determine how effective reinjection may turn out are: location, injection pressure and chemical  treatment. There must be a pressure connection between the production well and the reinjection well.

The injection wells must be located within the productive area in order to provide pressure support and  reservoir sweep. Separating and injecting the water at high pressure keeps temperatures high, provide  great support to reservoir pressures and also reduce the effects of silica deposition. There is a flip side,  however, resulting in the loss of some of the energy that could have been extracted if the water had  been flashed in a second stage to provide additional steam.

3.3.4 Noise
The primary sources of noise associated with exploration include earth-moving equipment (related to  road, well pad, and sump pit construction), vehicular traffic, seismic surveys, blasting, and drill rig  operations. Well drilling is estimated to produce noise levels ranging from about 90 dB; and the noise  from the discharge of boreholes may exceed the pain threshold of 120 dB with frequencies ranging  from 2 to 4000 Hz at the site boundary.
During the exploration phase, cost is kept to a minimum and adaptability may be needed in the choice  of a silencer. Once the plant has started operation there are several different silencer designs that can  be used to keep the environmental noise below the 65 dB limit applicable in or near to an inhabited  area. If the location is in an isolated remote area, the limit may be as high as 85 dB. Silencers, such as  brine silencers (Thórólfsson, 2010), have to be adapted to the prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the  existing environment, the chemistry and the behaviour of silica scaling is essential when designing the  power plant and its components.  Taking into consideration the sensitivity of the geothermal sites in Dominica, perhaps it would be best  to keep the noise to a minimum and carry out well testing outside of the tourist season.
Types of silencers: Silencer/separator; rock muffler; and concrete.
3.3.5 Thermal effects
Geothermal energy is a clean energy source compared to that of fossil-fuel combustion; thus, using it
as a replacement for fossil-fuel energy is beneficial to the environment. However, geothermal energy
has its down side which may incur some negative impacts on the local environment. The fluid brought
to the surface from high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs usually contains constituents which may
significantly affect surface and groundwater if not disposed of properly. Metals, minerals, and gases
are leachedinto the geothermal steam or hot water as it passes through the rocks. The large amounts of
chemicals released through steam when geothermal fields are tapped for commercial production can
be hazardous or objectionable to locals. Excess heat emitted in the form of steam may affect cloud
formation and change the weather locally, and waste water piped into streams, rivers, lakes or local
groundwaters may seriously affect the biology and ecological system (vegetation, wildlife, aquatic
biota, special status species, and their habitats).
Over the last few decades many steps have been taken to reduce the environmental impacts of
geothermal utilization. These include:
• Directional drilling which aims at reducing damage to scenery, undesirable visual effects and
soil erosion;
• Injection of waste water and condensate into bedrock, which reduces chemical pollution of local
surface and groundwaters while helping to bolster reservoir pressure and prolong the resource’s
productive existence. Technologies have also been developed to remove Hg, B and As from
steam, thus reducing pollution by these elements;
• Multiple use of the resource is efficient and also contributes to the reduction of heat wastage.
As demonstrated in the Lindal diagram (Líndal 1973), there are uses for the heat down to low
temperatures. In warm countries like Dominica and the other Caribbean islands, the excess heat
could be used for air-cooling by means of heat pumps.
3.3.6 Chemical pollution
In geothermal utilization, chemical pollution is due to the discharge of chemicals into the atmosphere
via steam; the spent liquid may also contain dissolved chemicals of potential harm to the environment.
Spray, which constitutes a problem mainly during well testing, could damage vegetation.
Wastes produced by drilling include drilling fluid and mud, geothermal fluids (and remaining sludge
in sump pits after evaporation), used oil and filters, spilt fuel, drill cuttings, spent and unused solvents,
scrap metal, solid waste, and garbage. Wastes may also include hydraulic fluids, pipe dope, rigwash,
drums and containers, paint and paint washes, sandblast media. Wastes associated with drilling fluids
include oil derivatives (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], spilled chemicals, suspended
and dissolved solids, phenols, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and drilling mud
additives, including potentially harmful contaminants such as chromate and barite). Adverse impacts
can result if hazardous wastes are not properly handled and released to the environment.
The main pollutant chemicals in the liquid fraction are hydrogen sulphide (H₂S), arsenic (As), boron
(B), mercury (Hg); other heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and
Report 11 145 De Roche
manganese (Mn). Lithium (Li) and ammonia (NH₃), as well as aluminium (Al), may also occur in
harmful concentrations. In cases where the geothermal fluids are brines, they may have direct
negative impacts on the environment due to the very high salt content.
Disposal of this type of water is critical and the best and most effective method for avoiding water
pollution, thus far, is through the reinjection of the spent fluid. If waste is released into rivers or lakes
instead of being injected into the geothermal field, these pollutants could damage aquatic life and
make the water unsafe for drinking or irrigation. As and Hg, in particular, may accumulate in
sediments and organisms while boron, on the other hand, in very high concentrations is very harmful
to plants.
3.3.7 Gaseous emissions
Geothermal fluids contain dissolved gases which are released into the atmosphere. The main polluting
gases are carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Both are denser than air and may
accumulate in pits, depressions and confined spaces. These gases are a recognized hazard for people
working in geothermal stations or bore fields. Other contributing offenders are methane, mercury,
radon, ammonia and boron. Carbon dioxide, which is usually the major constituent of the gas present
in geothermal fields, and methane, usually a minor constituent, are both greenhouse gases contributing
to potential climate change. However, geothermal extraction releases far less greenhouse gas per unit
of electricity generated than burning fossil fuels such as coal or gas to produce electricity.
Investigations from volcanic terrains strongly suggest that the development of geothermal fields makes
no difference to the total CO₂ emanating from them (Bertani, 2001). It has also been pointed out that
the CO₂ emitted from geothermal plants is not created by power generation but is CO₂ that would have
been vented out gradually and naturally through the earth (Ármannsson et al., 2001).
Hydrogen sulphide probably causes the greatest concern due to its repulsive smell and toxicity (even
at moderate concentrations). Although geothermal plants do not emit sulphur dioxide directly, it is
alleged that once H₂S is released into the atmosphere, it eventually changes into sulphur dioxide and
sulphuric acid. This is a matter of debate because little evidence has been found of such an effect
within the vicinity of power plants and it has not been demonstrated that the H₂S is indeed oxidized to
SO₂ to any degree. It has been shown, however, that a considerable portion of H₂S is washed out of
the steam and precipitated as elemental sulphur. It has been observed that the concentration of H₂S in
borehole steam increases relatively more than the CO₂ concentration compared to their concentrations
in naturally emitted steam as a result of geothermal utilization. Probably this is due to the higher
reactivity of H₂S.
There are several surface manifestations in Wotten Waven. Some of these are used directly as sulphur
pools for therapeutic baths. The area is known for the strong scent of H₂S, which is sometimes
apparent in the city of Roseau. Villagers have also complained of heavy corrosion of their appliances.
It was also brought to my attention that some of the visitors who bathe in the hot sulphur pools have
complained of dizziness while in the pools. This may be due to the emission of H₂S and CO₂ present
in the steam and the length of time people are immersed in the pools and inhaling these gases.
However, no research has been carried out to determine the actual cause.
4. CASE STUDY
Power generation of any kind presents some degree of risk to the environment and this holds true for
geothermal energy as well. While this level of risk exists, it has been confirmed that with proper
maintenance measures, monitoring programmes and waste disposal management, these negative
impacts can be minimized.
De Roche 146 Report 11
There are several countries in the world that produce geothermal energy or have the capacity to do so.
These countries range from: Italy, with over 100 years of electricity production; France, with space
heating since the 14th century; The first large geothermal project in Iceland, the Reykjavik Heating
System started over 80 years ago (1928); Costa Rica started in 1994; El Salvador in 1975; Hawaii in
1982; and Guadeloupe in 1984. Presently, Dominica, in the Lesser Antilles, is in the exploratory
phase of a geothermal project.
Successful operation of geothermal plants did not happen overnight in these countries. There were
cases of poor management throughout the years of operation where strategies had to be redefined in
order to continue production – for example in Hawaii.
The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. An experimental 3
MW power plant went online in 1982, but it was shut down after eight years of production (Boyd,
2002). This plant was actually built as a two year demonstration project. The plant was closed down
permanently due to inadequate maintenance of the equipment and operation at a loss. Furthermore,
the effluent abatement systems and brine systems were neither efficient nor acceptable to the
community and the regulatory agencies. The company did accomplish a lot despite being shut down.
The facility demonstrated that reservoir fluids required special maintenance and handling, but also
showed that this issue could be managed. It was after this experience that the Hawaiian regulatory
agencies became aware of the issues regarding geothermal development that could affect the
community. Due to emission releases, the extent of brine ponds beyond the plant boundaries and an
unkempt appearance of the plant itself because of limited maintenance, this experimental HGP-A
power plant, as it was called, was not well received at all.
The people expressed their concerns over several issues including impacts on Hawaiian culture and
religious values, potential geological hazards, public health and loss of native rainforest as well as a
change in the rural nature of the area. This had a negative impact on future exploration. As a matter
of fact further exploration was opposed. The Puna Geothermal Venture plant was eventually
established over a decade later. Residents have accepted the plant as a part of the power supply, but
there are still lingering health and environmental concerns among residents near the plant. As a result,
an investigation was carried out by the Environmental Protection Agency and a programme
documenting residents’ health problems which they attributed to geothermal emissions.
When the Puna Geothermal Venture lost control of their wells during drilling and allowed the
uncontrolled release of steam from their exploration well in June 1991, this only added insult to injury.
The drilling permits were suspended by the state regulatory agency not only for the Puna Geothermal
Venture, but also for another geothermal company – The True Geothermal Energy Company which
had already spent quite some years haggling with the regulatory bodies trying to develop the central
rift area. This ultimately led to the abandonment of the True Geothermal Energy project.
The Puna Geothermal Venture was able to produce 35 MWe despite the delays and at a much higher
cost than had been anticipated. The facility still faces technical challenges, but has been able to
produce power with a minimum of “blowouts” to the community and likewise a minimum of public
controversy. This facility is now producing 60 MWe, but there are no current plans to expand their
production capacity.
There are also global environmental issues on the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal energy
plays a very important role in this area as it is renewable and it is an environmentally friendly source
of energy. The emission of greenhouse gases has to be reduced.
Iceland is an ideal example of the effectiveness of geothermal utilization. In Iceland 83% of the
greenhouse gas emission are CO₂. The use of fossil fuel accounts for 70% of these. In the year 2000,
the total emission of CO₂ in Iceland was 3.3 million tonnes, of which 36% came from industry, 31%
from transport (excluding international flights), 26% from the fishing fleet, 5% from high-temperature
Report 11 147 De Roche
geothermal plants, 1% from homes and 1% from other sources. CO₂ emission has been reduced
significantly in Iceland since 89% of the houses are now heated using geothermal energy for space
heating, which gradually replaced fossil fuels in the 1930s with the largest increase during the 1970s
following the first oil crisis. It is very important to understand that this emission from geothermal
fields is not a result of the production of greenhouse gases but rather a displacement of naturally
occurring gas in high-temperature fields.
The use of geothermal energy has advanced over the years in many countries and Iceland is a good
example. For centuries it was only used for bathing and washing. Presently, this resource is used both
for electricity generation and direct heat application. Space heating is the most widespread form of
direct utilization of geothermal energy in Iceland covering 89% of all buildings in the country. Other
areas of direct use include swimming pools, snow melting, industry, greenhouses and fish farming.
Electricity generation with geothermal energy has rapidly increased throughout the past few years,
principally due to the increased demand from energy intensive industry.
5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Global warming and climate change are much discussed topics and many ethnic groups and
organizations are having increasing concerns for the environment especially since it is an
anthropogenic problem. It is, therefore, critical that greater emphasis be placed on the utilization of
clean and sustainable energy sources such as geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is considered a
relatively clean source of energy. All possible environmental impacts can, to a large extent, be
foreseen and this paves the way to take measures to minimize their effects prior to utilization.
Knowing beforehand the contributing factors to possible environmental degradation due to geothermal
production and recognizing the areas that are most sensitive and vulnerable enables stakeholders to
establish an effective mitigating programme.
In Dominica, the site due for geothermal development is in a significantly delicate location where
various species and their habitats, and the neighbouring rivers will be affected one way or another.
Consequently, it is imperative that this geothermal field be carefully and continuously monitored and
that the necessary means be taken and applied in order to minimize the gravity of the impacts on the
environment. One of the first questions asked in such cases is “are we absolutely certain that this
geothermal field in such a unique and delicate area is worth the risk?” If yes, then proceed to ask:
• Was the surface exploration thoroughly carried out?
• In which areas will permission for entering be granted?
• If development of this area is not successful, can the area be recovered/restored to its natural
self?
• How does the company dispose of the material cleared?
• Where will roads be built and will the location affect any wildlife trails?
• How big is the drilling plant?
• How does the company propose to approach the environmental aspect of the project?
• How does it propose to protect the unique wildlife and habitats?
• Will a camp be set up at the site?
• How will waste be discarded?
• How long will exploratory drilling last?
• What about waste fluid disposal during this phase?
There are two phases to consider: the exploration drilling phase and the production phase. Some
things to consider during the exploration drilling phase are:
De Roche 148 Report 11
• The advantage of seismic sounding before drilling;
• The fluid should not come in contact with ground/surface water;
• The drilling fluid should not or have a minimal effect on the surface conditions of the area;
• Duration of testing (long or short period), as this will affect waste fluid disposal;
• Caution should be taken with any road construction so that animal trails are not crossed;
• Avoid the main areas of hunting and feeding grounds of indigenous species;
• Well testing should be carried out outside of the tourist season because of noise and possible
spray;
• A separate environmental impact assessment should be considered during this phase;
• The advantage of drilling according to a “production” well programme as opposed to a slim
well programme;
• The possibilities and advantages of drilling directional wells.
During the production phase, the plan is basically permanent. Production drilling is carried out during
the project planning phase of geothermal development. Attention is paid to the reservoir temperature
and pressure, reservoir rock type and flow paths, fluid chemistry, hydrological reservoir parameters
and well productivity (injectivity). These investigations are carried out with the objective of revising
the conceptual model and the potential generating capacity in order to design and construct the plant.
At this point the most reliable and trusted form of environmental protection is reinjection of the fluids.
It is true that Iceland is a unique country in respect to its geothermal production capacity and
utilization and this is due to its fortunate geographical location. Energy use in Iceland differs from
that of other countries. The energy use is higher per capita and the ratio of sustainable energy sources
is also high. Many countries do not enjoy the widely established and stable range of utilization found
in Iceland. For developing countries like Dominica, applications will not be as diverse. Nonetheless,
geothermal energy can be put to multiple uses in Dominica. The island lies in the tropics and does not
have snow, but cooling is greatly needed. It can also be used for greenhouses, fish drying and for the
production of commercial liquid carbon dioxide derived from the geothermal fluid, to name a few.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Great thanks go out to Dr. Ingvar B. Fridleifsson, Director of the UNU-GTP, Mr. Lúdvík S.
Georgsson, Deputy Director, Thórhildur Ísberg, Markús A.G. Wilde, Ingvar, Thráinn and Gylfi Páll  Hersir for their kindness and continuous support and attention during this period. I would also like to  extend my sincere gratitude to the ISOR administration and their personnel for their assistance and  vital contribution to my development here. I am very grateful to Halldór Ármannsson, my tutor, for his guidance, patience and advice on my report. I also want to express my sincere thanks to Sverrir Thórhallsson, Helgi Jensson, Geir Thórólfsson and everyone else who assisted me with this project.

I would like to acknowledge the Government of Dominica, through the Ministry of National Security, Immigration & Labour for authorizing my attendance at this six month geothermal training programme. Very special thanks go out to Hon. Charles Savarin, Mr. Lucien Blackmoore and Mr. Michael Fadelle for their support and encouragement.

Finally, to the 27 Fellows, it was a great journey and an amazing experience. I will forever treasure this moment. It was indeed a pleasure to meet all of you. May the grace of God be with you always! Finally, I must give praise and thanks to the Almighty God for blessing me with the opportunity to  come to this beautiful place to attend this training programme.
Report 11 149 De Roche

REFERENCES
Allis, R.G., 2000: Review of subsidence at Wairakei field, New Zealand. Geothermics, 29, 455-478.

Allis, R.G., and Zhan, X., 1997: Potential for subsidence due to geothermal development of Tauhara  field. IGNS Client report 5177A.10 for Contact Energy.

Ármannsson, H., and Kristmannsdóttir, H., 1993: Geothermal environmental impact. Geothermics,  21-5/6, 869-880.

Ármannsson, H., Kristmannsdóttir, H., and Hallsdóttir, B., 2001: Gas emissions from geothermal  fields. Proceedings of Orkuthing 2001, Reykjavík (in Icelandic), 324-330.
Ármannsson, H., Kristmannsdóttir, H., Torfason, H., and Ólafsson, M., 2000: Natural changes in  unexploited high-temperature geothermal areas in Iceland. Proceedings of the World Geothermal  Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohuku, Japan, 521-526.

Aust, H., and Sustrac, G., 1992: Impact of development on the geological environment. In:
Lumsden, G.I. (chief editor), Geology and the environment in Western Europe. Oxford University  Press, Oxford, 202-280.

Bertani, R., 2001: IGA activities, highlights of the 28th IGA Board Meeting. IGA Quarterly, 44, 1-2.

Björnsson, G., and Steingrímsson, B., 1991: Temperature and pressure in the Svartsengi geothermal reservoir. Orkustofun, Reykjavík, report OS-91016/JHD-04 (in Icelandic with Engl.summary), 69 pp.

Bogie, I., Lawless, J.V. and Pornuevo, J.B. 1987: Kaipohan: An apparently nonthermal manifestation  of hydrothermal systems in the Philippines. J. Volcanology & Geothermal Research 31, 281-292.

Boyd T. L., 2002: Hawaii and geothermal; what has been happening? GHC Bulletin, 32-3, 11-21.
Brandsdóttir, B., Franzson, H., Einarsson, P., Árnason, K., and Kristmannsdóttir, H., 2002: Seismic  monitoring during an injection experiment in the Svartsengi geothermal field, Iceland. Jökull, 51, 43- 52.

BRGM, 1983: Gravimetric study of the Soufriere and Wotten Waven areas. BRGM, report n° 83,  SGN 714 GTH.

BRGM, 1984: Geothermal prefeasibility study on Dominica Island. BRGM, report n° 84 SGN 101 GTH.

BRGM, 1985: Volcano-structural history of southern part of Dominica Island. BRGM, report °  85 SGN 068 IRG-GTH (in French).
CFG Services, 2005: Field report on geothermal exploration in Wotten Waven, Dominica. OAS – Eastern Caribbean Geothermal Development Project ‘Geo-Caraibes’.

CFG Services, 2009: Environmental feasibility study. INTERREG III-B Project: Geothermal energy  in the Caribbean Islands.

Eysteinsson, H., 2000: Elevation and gravity changes at geothermal fields on the Reykjanes
Peninsula, SW Iceland.

Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohuku,  Japan, 559-564.
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Glover, R.B., Hunt, T.M., and Severne, C.M., 2000: Impacts of development on a natural thermal  feature and their mitigation – Ohaaki Pool, New Zealand. Geothermics, 29, 509-523.

Glowacka, E., Gonzalez, J., and Nava, F.A., 2000: Subsidence in Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja  California, Mexico. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, 2,  591-596.

Goff, S., and Goff, F., 1997: Environmental impacts during development: Some examples from  Central America. Proceedings of NEDO International Geothermal Symposium 1997, 242-250.

Hunt, T.M., 2001: Five lectures on environmental effects of geothermal utilization. UNU-GTP,  Iceland, report 1-2000, 109 pp.

Kristmannsdóttir, H., and Ármannsson, H., 2003: Environmental aspects of geothermal energy  utilization. Geothermics, 32, 451-461.

Lasne, H. and Traineau, H., 2005: Field report on geothermal exploration in Wotten Waven,  Dominica. CFG Services.

Lee, S., and Bacon, L., 2000: Operational history of the Ohaaki geothermal field, New Zealand.
Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, 5, 3211-3216.

Líndal, B., 1973: Industrial and other applications of geothermal energy, except poser production and  district heating. In: Armstead, H.C.H. (eds.) Geothermal energy. Paris, UNESCO, LC 7297, 135-  148.

Lindsay, J.M., Robertson, R.E.A., Shepherd, J.B., and Ali, S. (eds.), 2005: Volcanic hazard atlas of  the Lesser Antilles. Seismic Research Unit, University of West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago.

Sigurdsson, H., and Carey, S.T., 1980: The Roseau ash: Deep-sea tephra deposits from a major  eruption on Dominica, Lesser Antilles Arc. J. Volcanol. & Geoth. Res., 7-1/2, 87-96.

Thórólfsson, G., 2010: Silencers for flashing geothermal brine, thirty years of experimenting.

Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 8 pp.

Torfason, H., 1992: The nature of high-temperature geothermal areas: observations at Theistareykir

1991. Orkustofnun, Reykjavík, report HeTo-92/02 (in Icelandic), 2 pp.

Traineau, H. and Lasne, E., 2008: Geological and geochemical survey of the Wotten Waven
geothermal field, Dominica, West Indies. CFG Services, final report.

Young, S., 2005: Review of local seismicity and other observations relevant to characterizing the  geothermal resources in Dominica. GeoSY, Ltd., unpubl. report, 8 pp.

I received this by email and was asked to share. I copied and pasted the document and made it fit the page. Then after I posted it I found the link

http://www.os.is/gogn/unu-gtp-report/UNU-GTP-2010-11.pdf

 

This is the first and only study I can find on the health ramifications of geothermal energy.

It was done in Iceland; this is where the company who wants to do the well in Laudat is from.

Environmental Health News

 

I wanted to share some new research on geo thermal so we can all be informed. It is never smart to only study information released by companies who have a vested interest in a project.

The following two videos are the actual experiences of communities in Hawaii who have geothermal in their area. Their stories are mind blowing.

http://www.bigislandvideonews.com/2012/04/25/video-a-case-against-geothermal-part-one/

http://www.bigislandvideonews.com/2012/04/27/video-a-case-against-geothermal-part-two/

Interestingly this video did not exist when I did my original environmental research in 2011. THEY HAVE JUST STARTED TO STUDY OR FIND OUT ABOUT THE HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RAMIFICATIONS.